In the mid-1950s, concern was increasing about the possible effects from the radioactive fallout resulting from nuclear weapon testing. Various scientists from non-nuclear countries such as Sweden and Canada made their politicians aware of the potential hazards of fallout. This concern went up to the General Assembly of the United Nations, which took the unique step of appointing a scientific committee to advise it about the levels and effects of radiation, especially from nuclear bomb testing. The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation was established in 1955 and held its first working meeting in September 1956. In less than two years it produced its first, pioneering report, which produced previously secret information about fallout exposure, and hitherto unknown information about natural background and medical exposure.
Despite the importance of volunteer administrators to nonprofit and many government organizations, little systematic research has been focused on these officials. Using a large national survey of volunteer practitioners conducted in 1989-1990, this article examines empirically several hypotheses concerning organizational support to meet administrator needs for continuing education. Using the survey responses, the article also elaborates the subjects recommended by the administrators for treatment in a basic seminar in volunteer management, in an advanced seminar, and in further research.
Canadian Mental Health Association, Vancouver/Burnaby Branch, British Columbia, Canada, and Department of Psychology, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
This case report describes the transformation of a sheltered workshop program to a program that provides evidence-based supported employment services in partnership with five community treatment teams. Over a 15-year period, a Canadian nonprofit agency that provides employment services for persons with severe mental illness made a series of programmatic changes to increase the effectiveness of the services. The agency initially modified its facility-based sheltered workshop to include a prevocationally oriented work preparation program, later added brokered supported employment services, and finally completely transformed its organization by relocating its vocational rehabilitation counselors to five community mental health teams, in order to implement an evidence-based supported employment program that is based on the individual placement and support model. During the initial period in which the sheltered employment program was utilized, less than 5 percent of clients who were unemployed when they entered the workshop achieved competitive employment annually. The annual competitive employment rate did not increase during the prevocational phase; it increased during the brokered supported employment phase but did not exceed 25 percent. By contrast, after shifting to evidence-based supported employment, 84 (50 percent) of 168 unemployed clients who received between six and 27 months of individual placement and support services achieved competitive employment. This article also documents the role of agency planning and commitment quality improvement in implementing change.