The national policy in Norway have since the last part of the 1990-ies been organized in programs that erected actions including national authorities, municipalities, regional authorities and private enterprises. What have we gained by our national activities to mainstream inclusive and accessibility policy for persons with reduced capability through the principles of Universal Design? Have we made society accessible to everyone and prevented discrimination. Are the results visible? We can measure results on several sectors, inter alia public buildings, outdoor areas, central communication hubs, public transport and the occurrence plans for Universal Design in municipalities and regions. Through several programs and action plans the Norwegian government has developed a sectoral approach for including persons with disabilities in the society. The majority of ministries have participated in these plans. Local initiatives, local councils for disabled people, and later on municipalities and county administrations were supported by national authorities as complements to regulations and laws. In addition, guidelines and assisting funds were used. The main objective was to redefine the national policy, using better defined national goals and introducing Universal Design to replace accessibility as the basic tool. The mainstreaming of the accessibility policy, where Universal Design was included in relevant sectors and activities, was a crucial part of the strategy. The national policy was organized in programs that erected actions focusing on how to reach, inspire and include municipalities and regional authorities in their own struggle for Universal Design. Through the mainstream approach ministries have both earmarked economic transfers to their own agencies and used steering documents guide to these agencies how to implement Universal Design in their advisory services, in practicing laws and regulations and in their own planning and building activities.
Several studies have been published listing sources of practice knowledge used by nurses. However, the authors located no studies that asked clinicians to describe comprehensively and categorize the kinds of knowledge needed to practice or in which the researchers attempted to understand how clinicians privilege various knowledge sources. In this article, the authors report findings from two large ethnographic case studies in which sources of practice knowledge was a subsidiary theme. They draw on data from individual and card sort interviews, as well as participant observations, to identify nurses' sources of practice knowledge. Their findings demonstrate that nurses categorize their sources of practice knowledge into four broad groupings: social interactions, experiential knowledge, documents, and a priori knowledge. The insights gained add new understanding about sources of knowledge used by nurses and challenge the disproportionate weight that proponents of the evidence-based movement ascribe to research knowledge.
In presenting examples from the most extensive and demanding fire in modern Swedish history, this paper describes challenges facing hastily formed networks in exceptional situations. Two concepts that have been used in the analysis of the socio-technical systems that make up a response are conversation space and sensemaking. This paper argues that a framework designed to promote understanding of the sensemaking process must take into consideration the time and the location at which an individual is engaged in an event. In hastily formed networks, location is partly mediated through physical systems that form conversation spaces of players and their interaction practices. This paper identifies and discusses four challenges to the formation of shared conversation spaces. It is based on the case study of the 2006 Bodträskfors forest fire in Sweden and draws on the experiences of organised volunteers and firefighters who participated in a hastily formed network created to combat the fire.
The application of knowledge on organization and leadership is important for the promotion of health at workplace. The purpose of this article is to analyse the leadership and organization, including the organizational culture, of a Swedish industrial company in relation to the health of the employees. The leadership in this company has been oriented towards developing and actively promoting a culture and a structure of organization where the employees have a high degree of control over their work situation. According to the employees, this means extensive possibilities for personal development and responsibility, as well as good companionship, which makes them feel well at work. This is also supported by the low sickness rate of the company. The results indicate that the leadership and organization of this company may have been conducive to the health of the employees interviewed. However, the culture of personal responsibility and the structure of self-managed teams seemed to suit only those who were able to manage the demands of the company and adapt to that kind of organization. Therefore, the findings indicate that the specific context of the technology, the environment and the professional level of the employees need to be taken into consideration when analysing the relation between leadership, organization and health at work.
The European Union (EU) is characterized by a large number of different emergency healthcare (EHC) systems. In this situation, a common policy for healthcare emergency handling is largely prevented and is a cause of an increase of the costs associated with such systems all over Europe. There is, hence, a need for a homogenization and integration of healthcare emergency systems in Europe. This turns out to be difficult because of the ethical, political, legal, and technological differences and peculiarities of the European scenario and the large investments that would be needed in this sector. The process of integration passes through the identification of the main functionalities--driven by the user needs in their real life conditions--along with the technologies that are best fitted for supporting them. In this paper, several aspects related to these problems are analyzed and a real case study, drawn from the Project "Worldwide Emergency Telemedicine Services" (WETS), supported by the European Commission (DG-XIII), is presented. Within WETS, several pilot sites (in Italy, Spain, Greece, Denmark, and Iceland) consider different aspects of the integration of healthcare emergency systems with particular focus on the sharing of solutions that "traditionally" belong to different environments (i.e., land, air, and sea). The involvement of important hospitals, ship companies, airlines, and emergency health institutions allows us to devote a large part of this two-year project (1998-1999) to validate and demonstrate the results of the development phase in real-life conditions. Some more concrete details are given for the Italian pilot site, where the authors operate.
In organizational health promotion research, health promotion capacity is a central concept that is used to describe the abilities of individuals, organizations, and communities to promote health. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the theoretical underpinnings of the literature on health promotion capacity building and, further, to suggest an alternative theoretical perspective which draws on recent developments in organizational theory.
The paper begins by a critical discussion of the capacity building literature, which is juxtaposed with the relational perspective of contemporary organizational theory. The theoretical argument is developed in reference to the case of Danish municipal health promotion agencies, drawing on secondary sources as well as ethnographic fieldwork among public health officers.
The capacity building literature tends to reify the concept of capacity. In contrast, this paper argues that health promotion capacity is constantly defined and redefined through processes of organizing. The case study suggests that, faced with limited resources and limited knowledge, health promotion officials attain a sense of capacity through an ongoing reworking of organizational forms.
Organizational health promotion research should look for the organizational forms that are conducive to health promotion practices under shifting social circumstances.
This paper makes explicit an inherent theoretical tension in the capacity building literature and suggests a novel theoretical framework for understanding organizational capacity.
Carrying out critical business functions without interruption requires a resilient and robust business continuity framework. By embedding an industry-standard incident management system within its business continuity structure, the Bank of Canada strengthened its response plan by enabling timely response to incidents while maintaining a strong focus on business continuity. A total programme approach, integrating the two disciplines, provided for enhanced recovery capabilities. While the value of an effective and efficient response organisation is clear, as demonstrated by emergency events around the world, incident response structures based on normal operating hierarchy can experience unique challenges. The internationally-recognised Incident Command System (ICS) model addresses these issues and reflects the five primary incident management functions, each contributing to the overall strength and effectiveness of the response organisation. The paper focuses on the Bank of Canada's successful implementation of the ICS model as its incident management and continuity of operations programmes evolved to reflect current best practices.