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Aboriginal beliefs about organ donation: some Coast Salish viewpoints.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature175969
Source
Can J Nurs Res. 2004 Dec;36(4):110-28
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2004
Author
Anita E Molzahn
Rosalie Starzomski
Michael McDonald
Chloe O'Loughlin
Author Affiliation
School of Nursing, University of Victoria, British, Columbia, Canada. amolzahn@uvic.ca
Source
Can J Nurs Res. 2004 Dec;36(4):110-28
Date
Dec-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
British Columbia
Female
Humans
Indians, North American
Male
Middle Aged
Organ Transplantation - ethnology
Tissue and Organ Procurement
Abstract
A large number of Aboriginal people await transplantation, and reluctance to donate organs has been noted among Aboriginal people. The purpose of this study was to explore the values and beliefs regarding organ donation of Coast Salish people living in British Columbia, Canada. Interviews were held with 14 people (8 women and 6 men) ranging in age from 25 to 63 years. Contextual themes were: lack of trust, life in Aboriginal communities, and tension between contemporary and traditional perspectives. Themes pertaining to death and dying were: acceptance of fate, death routines/rituals, and body wholeness. Themes pertaining to organ donation were: "we don't talk about it," transfer of spirit, and helping others. There was considerable diversity in beliefs among participants, which suggests that the beliefs held by an individual Aboriginal person should not be assumed to reflect those of any specific Aboriginal community.
PubMed ID
15739940 View in PubMed
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Alternative EBNA1 expression in organ transplant patients.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature29709
Source
J Med Virol. 2005 Jul;76(3):378-85
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2005
Author
Malin A M Berggren
Asa Isaksson
Ulrica Larsson
Folke Nilsson
Ulla Nyström
Tor Ekman
Jane Löfvenmark
Anne Ricksten
Author Affiliation
Institute of Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Chemistry and Transfusion Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
Source
J Med Virol. 2005 Jul;76(3):378-85
Date
Jul-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
5' Untranslated Regions
Adolescent
Adult
Alternative Splicing
Blotting, Western
Cell Line
Child
Child, Preschool
Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens - biosynthesis - genetics
Exons
Female
Herpesvirus 4, Human - genetics
Humans
Infant
Leukocytes - virology
Male
Middle Aged
Organ Transplantation
RNA, Messenger - analysis - genetics
RNA, Viral - analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
Sweden
Transfection
Abstract
In order to identify patients at risk for developing post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD), a sensitive nested RT-PCR method for detection of EBNA1 gene expression in peripheral blood cells was used. EBNA1 expression in peripheral blood samples from 60 organ recipients was analyzed and compared with 24 healthy controls in a retrospective study. Overall, EBNA1-positive samples were detected at least once in 43% of the transplant patients with post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease, in 18% of the other transplant patients and in none of the healthy controls. The odds ratio for EBNA1 expression in patients with post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease was 3.42 (95% CI=1.02-11.54) compared to other transplant recipients. Together with normal EBV Q promoter initiated EBNA1 transcripts, an alternatively spliced form was expressed in peripheral blood cells in the above-mentioned transplant patients. This transcript lacks the U leader exon in the 5'-untranslated region (UTR). We have previously identified and characterized a functional internal ribosome entry site, the EBNA IRES, in the untranslated U leader exon of EBNA1. Transfection experiments with EBNA1 coding plasmids followed by Western blot showed that the EBNA IRES promotes cap-independent translation and increases the EBNA1 protein level. The alternative EBNA1 transcript lacking this function is expressed in the majority of the investigated EBNA1-positive patient samples as well as in some EBV-positive B-cell lines. Alternative splicing in this form gives EBV potential to regulate the translation of EBNA1 by modifying the 5' UTR. These findings indicate a new mechanism for EBNA1 expression in vivo.
PubMed ID
15902706 View in PubMed
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Aspects of present and future data presentation in Scandiatransplant.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature89507
Source
Transplant Proc. 2009 Mar;41(2):732-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2009
Author
Grunnet N.
Bödvarsson M.
Jakobsen A.
Kyllönen L.
Olausson M.
Pfeffer P.
Sørensen S Schwartz
Author Affiliation
Scandiatransplant, Aarhus, Denmark. grunnet@scandiatransplant.org
Source
Transplant Proc. 2009 Mar;41(2):732-5
Date
Mar-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Distribution
Brain Death
Cadaver
Cause of Death
Databases, Factual
Denmark
Finland
Forecasting
Heart Transplantation - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Kidney Transplantation - statistics & numerical data
Liver Transplantation - statistics & numerical data
Lung Transplantation - statistics & numerical data
Norway
Organ Transplantation - statistics & numerical data
Resource Allocation - statistics & numerical data
Scandinavia
Tissue Donors - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Scandiatransplant is the Nordic organ exchange organization having existed for almost 40 years. With close collaboration between transplant centers in the Nordic countries, it has been valuable to ensure the optimal usage of available organs. The heart is the most often exchanged organ within the collaboration. It has been decided to create a priority for hyperimmunized kidney patients for compulsory exchange of organs from deceased donors. The age of the deceased organ donors has changed from younger to older donors. The evaluation of deceased kidney transplantations and deceased liver transplantations from 1995 to 2007 is shown for 4 countries. Iceland by itself is performing living donor kidney transplantations with great intensity. Scandiatransplant will make efforts to present more data than just transplantation to yield a more complete picture of organ transplantation.
PubMed ID
19328968 View in PubMed
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[Assessment of the need for organ transplantation in Quebec].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature218224
Source
CMAJ. 1994 May 1;150(9):1443-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1-1994
Author
M. Carrier
R. Cartier
L C Pelletier
Author Affiliation
Département de chirurgie, Institut de Cardiologie de Montréal, Qué.
Source
CMAJ. 1994 May 1;150(9):1443-8
Date
May-1-1994
Language
French
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Databases, Factual
Humans
Organ Transplantation - statistics & numerical data
Quebec
Registries
Retrospective Studies
Tissue Donors - statistics & numerical data - supply & distribution
Tissue and Organ Procurement - methods - organization & administration
Abstract
To evaluate the demand for organs for transplantation and to recommend a reorganization of transplantation services in Quebec.
Retrospective study.
Province of Quebec, 1988 to 1992.
All patients on waiting lists for organ transplantation and patients who received transplants registered in national data banks.
The actual annual demand for organ transplantation and the rate of transplantations performed.
The rates of heart transplantation were lower than the actual annual demand, which resulted in many patients dying while awaiting transplantation. The actual annual demand for heart transplantation decreased during the last 5 years from 10.9 per million people in 1987 to 6.7 in 1992. The rates of heart transplantation in Quebec were higher than the Canadian average. The actual demand for lung transplantation was only 2.9 per million people on average in 1992. Demand for liver transplantation increased annually, reaching 8.6 per million in 1992. The rate of transplantation increased likewise but remained insufficient. The demand for kidney transplantation reached 27.2 per million people in 1992, and the transplantation rate was 17.8.
Taking into account the actual demand for and supply of organ transplantation, to insure high-quality service and to control costs associated with organ transplantation, we recommend that the present system in Quebec be reorganized so that transplantations are performed in 12 centres: 7 for kidney transplantation, 2 for hearts, 2 for livers and 1 for lungs.
Notes
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Cites: J Am Coll Cardiol. 1993 Jul;22(1):8-148509567
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Cites: Ann Thorac Surg. 1990 Feb;49(2):220-3; discussion 223-42306143
Cites: J Am Coll Cardiol. 1990 Aug;16(2):249-922197309
Cites: Transplant Proc. 1991 Feb;23(1 Pt 2):1315-71989224
Cites: JAMA. 1992 Jan 8;267(2):239-461727520
Cites: Ann Chir. 1991;45(9):791-51781622
Cites: Health Serv Res. 1992 Jun;27(2):219-381592606
Cites: N Engl J Med. 1992 Sep 17;327(12):834-91508242
Cites: N Engl J Med. 1992 Oct 22;327(17):1220-51406795
Cites: J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1992 Nov;104(5):1308-11; discussion 1311-31434711
Cites: Transplant Proc. 1992 Dec;24(6):2586-911465874
Cites: Ann Thorac Surg. 1993 Mar;55(3):5818452415
Cites: Ann Thorac Surg. 1993 Mar;55(3):719-238452437
Cites: JAMA. 1987 Jun 12;257(22):3073-53295312
PubMed ID
8168008 View in PubMed
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Association between HLA-A1 and -A2 types and Epstein-Barr virus status of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature287893
Source
Leuk Lymphoma. 2016 Oct;57(10):2351-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2016
Author
Amelie Kinch
Christer Sundström
Gunnar Tufveson
Ingrid Glimelius
Source
Leuk Lymphoma. 2016 Oct;57(10):2351-8
Date
Oct-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Alleles
Child
Child, Preschool
Disease Susceptibility
Epstein-Barr Virus Infections - complications - virology
Female
Genotype
HLA-A1 Antigen - genetics - immunology
HLA-A2 Antigen - genetics - immunology
Herpesvirus 4, Human
Humans
Infant
Lymphoproliferative Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology - mortality
Male
Middle Aged
Organ Transplantation - adverse effects
Phenotype
Population Surveillance
Prognosis
Registries
Sweden - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
The susceptibility to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) may be affected by the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) type. We investigated HLA-A and HLA-B allele frequencies, focusing on HLA-A1 and -A2, in a population-based case series of EBV?+?(n?=?60) and EBV- (n?=?44) PTLD after solid organ transplantation. The proportion of EBV?+?PTLD was highest in HLA-A1 homozygotes (100%), lower in carriers of HLA-A1/AX (79%), HLA-A1/A2 (55%), HLA-A2/AX (54%), and lowest in HLA-A2 homozygotes (37%). HLA-A1 type was overrepresented (22% versus 7%, p?=?0.05) and HLA-A2 type underrepresented (57% versus 80%, p?=?0.01) in patients with EBV?+?compared with EBV?-?PTLD. EBV?+?PTLD in HLA-A1 carriers developed almost exclusively in already EBV-seropositive individuals. EBV status of PTLD was not related to any other HLA-A or HLA-B type. Our findings suggest that HLA-A1 carriers may have an increased risk of EBV?+?PTLD due to a decreased ability to control the latent EBV infection.
PubMed ID
27104753 View in PubMed
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[Attitude of the population to organ transplantation]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature73179
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 1994 May 9;156(19):2869-72
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-9-1994
Author
S. Keiding
S L Jensen
H. Vilstrup
Author Affiliation
Arhus Kommunehospital, transplantationscentret.
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 1994 May 9;156(19):2869-72
Date
May-9-1994
Language
Danish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Denmark
English Abstract
Female
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Organ Transplantation - psychology
Public Opinion
Questionnaires
Tissue Donors - legislation & jurisprudence - psychology
Tissue and Organ Procurement
Abstract
The attitude of the Danish population towards organ transplantation was examined by means of an interview study, executed by the Gallup Institute. From a sample population of 1391 persons above 18 years of age, 798 persons (70%) were interviewed, in the period April 24th to May 3rd 1992. When asked what they thought the general attitude toward transplantation was amongst the population, 65% answered "positive" or "very positive". The attitudes to three situations, namely to organ donation after the death of a parent, spouse or child was examined subsequently. Amongst those who had an opinion, 75% (72-76%) were positive and 25% (24-27%) were negative. The younger the interviewed person, the more positive the attitude. According to the Danish law the relatives can decide for or against organ donation if the deceased has not expressed her view on organ donation. In view of the general positive attitude of the population it is proposed that we introduce a system where every adult person is asked concerning his/her attitude, e.g. in connection with the yearly income tax form or renewal of the health insurance certificate.
PubMed ID
8009722 View in PubMed
Less detail

The attitudes of young men to cadaveric organ donation and transplantation: the influence of background factors and information.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature8509
Source
Transplant Proc. 1989 Feb;21(1):1413-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1989

Attitudes toward organ donation and transplantation. A model for understanding reactions to medical procedures after death.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature73193
Source
Soc Sci Med. 1994 Apr;38(8):1141-52
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1994
Author
M. Sanner
Author Affiliation
Department of Social Medicine, Akademiska sjukhuset, Uppsala, Sweden.
Source
Soc Sci Med. 1994 Apr;38(8):1141-52
Date
Apr-1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Altruism
Anxiety - psychology
Attitude to Death
Defense Mechanisms
Female
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Humans
Logic
Male
Middle Aged
Models, Psychological
Motivation
Negativism
Organ Transplantation - psychology
Philosophy
Religion and Medicine
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sampling Studies
Social Alienation
Sweden
Tissue Donors - psychology
Tissue and Organ Procurement
Trust
Abstract
The main purpose of this study was to reach a deeper understanding of factors influencing the attitudes toward organ donation and other procedures with the dead body. From a survey of 400 inhabitants of Uppsala, a city in the middle of Sweden, concerning attitudes toward transplantation issues, 38 individuals with different attitudes toward donation of their own organs were selected for follow-up interviews. From the interviews, more than 600 statements concerning motives and reactions to medical procedures with the dead body were listed. These statements were summarized in 20 motive categories, in which 17 the nature of the motives were negative to organ donation and three promoting such a procedure. The categories were then analyzed and interpreted within a frame of reference of psychodynamic defense theory. In several cases it was possible to relate them to common death anxiety defenses. Six different motive complexes were extracted. These are called (1) illusion of lingering life; (2) protection of the value of the individual; (3) distrust, anxiety and alienation; (4) respecting the limits set by Nature or God; (5) altruism; and (6) rationality. Individuals not willing to donate their own organs were judged as either (a) reacting out of strenthened death anxiety defenses, or (b) as having a special outlook on life, where the idea of what is 'natural' was emphasized. The adverse reactions of the positive attitude group were seen as initial reactions perceived as derivations of common death anxiety defenses and weakened when confronted with altruistic and fact-stressing arguments. In the 'undecided group' of 14 persons, 11 arrived at a definite opinion. Seven decided for organ donation when their mistaken beliefs were corrected or when they took time to work through their initial uneasiness, while 4 persons actually were clearly negative. Three still remained uncertain. The stability of these attitudes seems to be high, often being experienced as a part of one's philosophy of life.
PubMed ID
8042059 View in PubMed
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Attitudes toward reciprocity systems for organ donation and allocation for transplantation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature112830
Source
J Health Polit Policy Law. 2013 Oct;38(5):957-86
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2013
Author
Jacquelyn A Burkell
Jennifer A Chandler
Sam D Shemie
Author Affiliation
University of Western Ontario.
Source
J Health Polit Policy Law. 2013 Oct;38(5):957-86
Date
Oct-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Attitude to Health
Canada
Data Collection
Female
Focus Groups
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Organ Transplantation
Registries
Resource Allocation - methods
Tissue Donors - supply & distribution
Tissue and Organ Procurement
Young Adult
Abstract
Many of those who support organ donation do not register to become organ donors. The use of reciprocity systems, under which some degree of priority is offered to registered donors who require an organ transplant, is one suggestion for increasing registration rates. This article uses a combination of survey and focus group methodologies to explore the reaction of Canadians to a reciprocity proposal. Our results suggest that the response is mixed. Participants are more convinced of the efficacy than they are of the fairness of a reciprocity system. Those more positive about donation (decided donors and those leaning toward donation) rate the system more positively. Although there is general endorsement of the notion that those who wish to receive should be prepared to give (the Golden Rule), this does not translate into universal support for a reciprocity system. In discussions of efficacy, decided donors focus on the positive impact of reciprocity, whereas undecided donors also reflect on the limits of reciprocity for promoting registration. The results demonstrate divided support for reciprocity systems in the Canadian context, with perceptions of efficacy at the cost of fairness. Further studies are warranted prior to considering a reciprocity system in Canada.
PubMed ID
23794739 View in PubMed
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174 records – page 1 of 18.