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Adult-onset calorie restriction delays the accumulation of mitochondrial enzyme abnormalities in aging rat kidney tubular epithelial cells.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature78534
Source
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2007 Jun;292(6):F1751-60
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2007
Author
McKiernan Susan H
Tuen Victoria C
Baldwin Katherine
Wanagat Jonathan
Djamali Arjang
Aiken Judd M
Author Affiliation
Department of Animal Health and Biomedical Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA. mckiernan@svm.vetmed.wisc.edu
Source
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2007 Jun;292(6):F1751-60
Date
Jun-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aging - physiology
Animals
Body Weight - physiology
Caloric Restriction
DNA, Mitochondrial - genetics
Diet
Electron Transport Complex IV - metabolism
Epithelial Cells - enzymology
Gene Deletion
Kidney Tubules - cytology - enzymology
Lasers
Male
Mitochondria - enzymology
Organ Size - physiology
Rats
Rats, Inbred F344
Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
Succinate Dehydrogenase - metabolism
Abstract
Adult-onset calorie restriction (A-CR) is an experimental model of life extension and healthy aging less explored, compared with calorie restriction begun at early ages, but one more realistic for human application. We examined the effect of A-CR on the aging rat kidney with respect to common structural age-dependent changes and the accumulation of mitochondrial enzyme abnormalities in tubular epithelial cells. A 40% calorie restriction was initiated in middle-aged rats, before the onset of significant age-related changes in the Fischer x Brown Norway rat kidney. This dietary intervention effectively reduced glomerulosclerosis and tubular atrophy within 6 mo and changed the rate of interstitial fibrosis formation within 1 yr and vascular wall thickening and the expression cytochrome c oxidase (COX)-deficient tubular epithelial cells in 18 mo compared with age-matched ad libitum-fed rats. Our histological approach (histochemical staining for mitochondrial enzyme activity and laser capture microdissection) coupled with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) PCR analyses demonstrated that COX-deficient renal tubular epithelial cells accumulated mtDNA deletion mutations and that these cells contained unique, clonally expanded mtDNA deletion mutations. Renal tubular epithelial cells with mitochondrial abnormalities presented cellular characteristics indicative of physiological dysfunction.
PubMed ID
17344189 View in PubMed
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Age and gender specific normal values of left ventricular mass, volume and function for gradient echo magnetic resonance imaging: a cross sectional study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature90338
Source
BMC Med Imaging. 2009;9:2
Publication Type
Article
Date
2009
Author
Cain Peter A
Ahl Ragnhild
Hedstrom Erik
Ugander Martin
Allansdotter-Johnsson Ase
Friberg Peter
Arheden Hakan
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Physiology, Lund University Hospital, SE-22185, Lund, Sweden. peteracain@gmail.com
Source
BMC Med Imaging. 2009;9:2
Date
2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Child
Cross-Sectional Studies
Echo-Planar Imaging - statistics & numerical data
Female
Heart Ventricles - anatomy & histology
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Organ Size - physiology
Reference Values
Reproducibility of Results
Sensitivity and specificity
Sex Distribution
Stroke Volume - physiology
Sweden - epidemiology
Ventricular Function, Left - physiology
Young Adult
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Knowledge about age-specific normal values for left ventricular mass (LVM), end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), stroke volume (SV) and ejection fraction (EF) by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) is of importance to differentiate between health and disease and to assess the severity of disease. The aims of the study were to determine age and gender specific normal reference values and to explore the normal physiological variation of these parameters from adolescence to late adulthood, in a cross sectional study. METHODS: Gradient echo CMR was performed at 1.5 T in 96 healthy volunteers (11-81 years, 50 male). Gender-specific analysis of parameters was undertaken in both absolute values and adjusted for body surface area (BSA). RESULTS: Age and gender specific normal ranges for LV volumes, mass and function are presented from the second through the eighth decade of life. LVM, ESV and EDV rose during adolescence and declined in adulthood. SV and EF decreased with age. Compared to adult females, adult males had higher BSA-adjusted values of EDV (p = 0.006) and ESV (p
PubMed ID
19159437 View in PubMed
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Age-dependent increase in oxidative stress in gastrocnemius muscle with unloading.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature91973
Source
J Appl Physiol. 2008 Dec;105(6):1695-705
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2008
Author
Siu Parco M
Pistilli Emidio E
Alway Stephen E
Author Affiliation
Dept. of Health Technology and Informatics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic Univ., Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China. htpsiu@inet.polyu.edu.hk
Source
J Appl Physiol. 2008 Dec;105(6):1695-705
Date
Dec-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aging - physiology
Animals
Blotting, Western
Catalase - metabolism
Female
Hindlimb Suspension - physiology
Hydrogen Peroxide - metabolism
Male
Malondialdehyde - metabolism
Muscle, Skeletal - growth & development - metabolism - physiology
Organ Size - physiology
Oxidative Stress - physiology
Rats
Rats, Inbred BN
Rats, Inbred F344
Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
Superoxide Dismutase - metabolism
Tyrosine - analogs & derivatives - metabolism
Abstract
Oxidative stress increases during unloading in muscle from young adult rats. The present study examined the markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme gene and protein expressions in medial gastrocnemius muscles of aged and young adult (30 and 6 mo of age) Fischer 344 x Brown Norway rats after 14 days of hindlimb suspension. Medial gastrocnemius muscle weight was decreased by approximately 30% in young adult and aged rats following suspension. When muscle weight was normalized to animal body weight, it was reduced by 12% and 22% in young adult and aged rats, respectively, after suspension. Comparisons between young adult and aged control animals demonstrated a 25% and 51% decline in muscle mass when expressed as absolute muscle weight and muscle weight normalized to the animal body weight, respectively. H(2)O(2) content was elevated by 43% while Mn superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) protein content was reduced by 28% in suspended muscles compared with control muscles exclusively in the aged animals. Suspended muscles had greater content of malondialdehyde (MDA)/4-hydroxyalkenals (4-HAE) (29% and 58% increase in young adult and aged rats, respectively), nitrotyrosine (76% and 65% increase in young adult and aged rats, respectively), and catalase activity (69% and 43% increase in young adult and aged rats, respectively) relative to control muscles. Changes in oxidative stress markers MDA/4-HAE, H(2)O(2), and MnSOD protein contents in response to hindlimb unloading occurred in an age-dependent manner. These findings are consistent with the hypotheses that oxidative stress has a role in mediating disuse-induced and sarcopenia-associated muscle losses. Our data suggest that aging may predispose skeletal muscle to increased levels of oxidative stress both at rest and during unloading.
PubMed ID
18801960 View in PubMed
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[Age-related variation of adductor weight in the japanese scallop Mizuhopecten yessoensis (Jay) depending on cultivation technique]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature91486
Source
Izv Akad Nauk Ser Biol. 2008 Sep-Oct;(5):631-4
Publication Type
Article
Author
Pravdukhina O Iu
Kodolova O P
Source
Izv Akad Nauk Ser Biol. 2008 Sep-Oct;(5):631-4
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aging - physiology
Animals
Muscles - physiology
Oceans and Seas
Organ Size - physiology
Pectinidae - growth & development
Siberia
Abstract
Age-related variation in the absolute and relative adductor weight has been studied for 8 years in six samples of Japanese scallops Mizuhopecten yessoensis (Jay) of different generations from a shellfish farm in Alekseev Bight, Sea of Japan. The test character has proved to vary widely within the samples, with variation in shell size being relatively low. It has been shown that the dependence of adductor weight on the age of the scallop is not absolute: even-aged samples from different generations may differ significantly in this character. It is assumed that this effect is due to the influence of environmental factors on the development of scallops at early stages, which is especially strong under conditions of dense spat planting in the course of cultivation.
PubMed ID
18956743 View in PubMed
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Between-subjects variation in energy expenditure: estimation of the effect of variation in organ size.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature50190
Source
Eur J Clin Nutr. 1994 May;48(5):376-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1994
Author
L. Garby
O. Lammert
Author Affiliation
Department of Physiology, Odense University, Denmark.
Source
Eur J Clin Nutr. 1994 May;48(5):376-8
Date
May-1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Body Composition - physiology
Comparative Study
Denmark
Energy Metabolism - physiology
Exercise - physiology
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Organ Size - physiology
Reference Values
Abstract
The between-subjects variation in energy expenditure over 24 h at a fixed physical activity and corrected for differences in fat and fat-free mass has recently been determined to be 6-7%. New data on the variation between subjects of the weights of the brain, liver, kidneys, heart and spleen together with estimates of the energy expenditure of these organs were used to calculate the part of the between-subjects variation in energy expenditure at a fixed physical activity that is due to this variation alone. The results show that this variation is close to 5%. Thus, a very considerable part of the total between-subjects variation can be explained by differences in the composition of the fat-free mass.
PubMed ID
8055854 View in PubMed
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Caudate volumes in public transportation workers exposed to trauma in the Stockholm train system.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature90257
Source
Psychiatry Res. 2009 Feb 28;171(2):138-43
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-28-2009
Author
Looi Jeffrey Chee Leong
Maller Jerome Joseph
Pagani Marco
Högberg Göran
Lindberg Olof
Liberg Benny
Botes Lisa
Engman Eva-Lena
Zhang Yi
Svensson Leif
Wahlund Lars-Olof
Author Affiliation
Research Centre for the Neurosciences of Ageing, Academic Unit of Psychological Medicine, Australian National University Medical School, The Canberra Hospital, Canberra, Australia. jeffrey.looi@act.gov.au
Source
Psychiatry Res. 2009 Feb 28;171(2):138-43
Date
Feb-28-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Caudate Nucleus - pathology - physiopathology
Dominance, Cerebral - physiology
Female
Humans
Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
Imaging, Three-Dimensional
Life Change Events
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Male
Middle Aged
Occupational Diseases - diagnosis - physiopathology - psychology
Occupational Exposure
Organ Size - physiology
Railroads
Reference Values
Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic - diagnosis - physiopathology - psychology
Sweden
Abstract
The caudate nucleus is a structure implicated in the neural circuitry of psychological responses to trauma. This study aimed to quantify the volume of the caudate in persons exposed to trauma. Thirty-six subjects under 65 were recruited from transport workers in Stockholm who reported having been unintentionally responsible for a person-under-the-train accident or among employees having experienced an assault in their work (1999-2001) between 3 months and 6 years before MRI scanning. In those exposed to the trauma, a DSM-IV diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was made by an independent psychiatrist, with subjects being classified as PTSD or no PTSD. MRI data were analyzed blindly to all clinical information by an experienced rater using a standardized manual tracing protocol to quantify the volume of the caudate. Within-group comparisons of PTSD (n=19) and no PTSD (n=17) found the right caudate nucleus to be significantly (9%) larger than the left: a right hemisphere baseline asymmetry. A multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was conducted to assess the volume of the caudate nucleus (right and left) in relation to the diagnosis of no PTSD (n=17) or PTSD (n=19). After adjustment for the covariates (age, sex, intracranial volume, years since trauma, and number of trauma episodes), there was a significant difference in raw right caudate nucleus volume between subjects with PTSD compared with those without PTSD. Volume of the left caudate nucleus was not significantly different between the PTSD and no PTSD groups. The right caudate volume in the PTSD group was 9% greater compared with the no PTSD group. There is a larger right hemisphere volume of the caudate within those exposed to trauma with active PTSD compared with those without PTSD, superimposed upon a baseline caudate asymmetry.
PubMed ID
19176278 View in PubMed
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Daylength and body mass affect diet self-selection by Siberian hamsters.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature61989
Source
Physiol Behav. 1996 Jun;59(6):1039-50
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1996
Author
J B Fine
T J Bartness
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychology, Georgia State University, Atlanta 30303, USA.
Source
Physiol Behav. 1996 Jun;59(6):1039-50
Date
Jun-1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue - anatomy & histology - physiology
Animals
Body Weight - physiology
Cricetinae
Diet
Dietary Carbohydrates - administration & dosage
Dietary Fats - administration & dosage
Dietary Proteins - administration & dosage
Energy Intake - physiology
Food Deprivation - physiology
Food Preferences - physiology
Male
Organ Size - physiology
Phodopus
Photoperiod
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Seasons
Time Factors
Abstract
Siberian hamsters exhibit a decrease in peak body mass/fat and caloric intake when they are exposed to short winter-like days (SDs) compared with hamsters exposed to long summer-like days (LDs). We hypothesize that the photoperiod may directly or indirectly mediate alterations in gustatory processing that may account for shifts in the preferences for specific food types and/or macronutrients. Two experiments lasting 14 days each were conducted to: 1) identify photoperiod-related differences in diet selection, and; 2) determine whether these differences were a primary effect of SD exposure or a secondary effect due to SD-induced decreases in body fat/mass. In Experiment 1, two groups of hamsters were exposed to either LDs or SDs and given access to three complex food types [sunflower seeds (SF); rabbit chow (RC); millet seeds (M)]. In addition to their photoperiod-induced decreased body and fat pad mass, and caloric intake, SD-housed hamsters exhibited significant differences in their patterns of diet selection and relative amounts of fat, carbohydrate (COH), and protein eaten compared with LD-housed hamsters. By the end of the experiment, SD-housed hamsters selected a diet higher in COH and protein and lower in fat than that selected by LD-housed hamsters. Because SD-housed hamsters decrease their body mass/fat, this may reflect an adaptive strategy to maintain a leaner body mass. A second experiment was conducted to test whether the diet selection pattern of SD-housed hamsters was due to the SD-induced decrease in body mass/fat. LD-housed hamsters were allowed to feed ad lib (AL group), or were food restricted (FR group) to simulate a SD-induced decrease in body mass. Both groups were then released into the diet self-selection paradigm. FR hamsters reversed their food restriction-induced decrease in body mass and showed concurrent alterations in diet self-selection patterns that were distinct from the SD-induced patterns seen in Experiment 1. Specifically, they showed a persistent hyperphagia and selected a larger proportion of their total calories as M (high COH) and less as SF (high fat) than did AL hamsters during their return to LD body mass levels. However, once LD body mass levels were achieved, they increased their SF intake, and thus fat consumption. Despite these dynamic daily changes, the average selection patterns of both the diet types and macronutrients were not different by the end of the experiment. Therefore, it appears that the SD-induced changes in the selection of food sources (and ultimately, the macronutrient composition of the diet) cannot be solely attributable to the SD-induced decreases in body mass.
PubMed ID
8737891 View in PubMed
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Delineation of target volumes and organs at risk in adjuvant radiotherapy of early breast cancer: national guidelines and contouring atlas by the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature116205
Source
Acta Oncol. 2013 May;52(4):703-10
Publication Type
Conference/Meeting Material
Article
Date
May-2013
Author
Mette H Nielsen
Martin Berg
Anders N Pedersen
Karen Andersen
Vladimir Glavicic
Erik H Jakobsen
Ingelise Jensen
Mirjana Josipovic
Ebbe L Lorenzen
Hanne M Nielsen
Lars Stenbygaard
Mette S Thomsen
Susanne Vallentin
Sune Zimmermann
Birgitte V Offersen
Author Affiliation
Department of Oncology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark. mette.m.nielsen@ouh.regionsyddanmark.dk
Source
Acta Oncol. 2013 May;52(4):703-10
Date
May-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Conference/Meeting Material
Article
Keywords
Atlases as Topic
Breast Neoplasms - pathology - radiotherapy - surgery
Denmark
Female
Humans
Mastectomy, Segmental - legislation & jurisprudence - utilization
Middle Aged
Organ Size - physiology
Organs at Risk - pathology - radiation effects
Practice Guidelines as Topic
Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted - methods - standards
Radiotherapy, Adjuvant
Radiotherapy, Conformal - methods
Abstract
During the past decade planning of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) of early breast cancer has changed from two-dimensional (2D) to 3D conformal techniques. In the planning computerised tomography (CT) scan both the targets for RT and the organs at risk (OARs) are visualised, enabling an increased focus on target dose coverage and homogeneity with only minimal dose to the OARs. To ensure uniform RT in the national prospective trials of the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), a national consensus for the delineation of clinical target volumes (CTVs) and OARs was required.
A CT scan of a breast cancer patient after surgical breast conservation and axillary lymph node (LN) dissection was used for delineation. During multiple dummy-runs seven experienced radiation oncologists contoured all CTVs and OARs of interest in adjuvant breast RT. Two meetings were held in the DBCG Radiotherapy Committee to discuss the contouring and to approve a final consensus. The Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) was used to evaluate the delineation agreement before and after the consensus.
The consensus delineations of CTVs and OARs are available online and a table is presented with a contouring description of the individual volumes. The consensus provides recommendations for target delineation in a standard patient both in case of breast conservation or mastectomy. Before the consensus, the average value of the DSC was modest for most volumes, but high for the breast CTV and the heart. After the consensus, the DSC increased for all volumes.
The DBCG has provided the first national guidelines and a contouring atlas of CTVs and OARs definition for RT of early breast cancer. The DSC is a useful tool in quantifying the effect of the introduction of guidelines indicating improved inter-delineator agreement. This consensus will be used by the DBCG in our prospective trials.
PubMed ID
23421926 View in PubMed
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Diet choice exaggerates food hoarding, intake and pup survival across reproduction.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature61699
Source
Physiol Behav. 2002 Feb 1-15;75(1-2):143-57
Publication Type
Article
Author
Diane E Day
Eric M Mintz
Timothy J Bartness
Author Affiliation
Department of Biology, Neurobiology and Behavior Program, Center for Behavioral Neuroscience, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA.
Source
Physiol Behav. 2002 Feb 1-15;75(1-2):143-57
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue - anatomy & histology - physiology
Animals
Body Composition - physiology
Body Weight - physiology
Cricetinae
Diet
Dietary Carbohydrates - pharmacology
Dietary Fats - pharmacology
Dietary Proteins - pharmacology
Eating - physiology
Energy Intake - physiology
Feeding Behavior - physiology
Female
Lactation - physiology
Litter Size - physiology
Organ Size - physiology
Phodopus
Pregnancy
Reproduction - physiology
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Survival
Abstract
Siberian hamsters increase food intake and hoarding during pregnancy and lactation, perhaps to compensate for large decreases in body fat (approximately 50%). We tested the effects of diet choice on these responses in pregnant, lactating and virgin hamsters housed in a simulated burrow system. Hamsters were offered pellet chow (PC) or a choice of sunflower seeds (SS), rabbit chow (RC) and PC. Pregnant or lactating PC-fed hamsters had increased food intake and hoard size compared with virgins, effects exaggerated by diet self-selection. The pregnancy-induced increases and lactation-induced decreases in body mass were enhanced and diminished by diet self-selection, respectively. Pregnant self-selecting hamsters ate relatively more carbohydrate and less fat and hoarded less carbohydrate and more fat than their virgin counterparts (protein not affected). Lactating and virgin self-selecting hamsters both ate and hoarded relatively more carbohydrate than protein or fat compared with PC-fed hamsters but were not different from each other. Litter and pup sizes were similar at birth, but pups from self-selecting mothers had decreased lipid content (50%) compared with pups from PC-fed mothers, whereas at weaning they were heavier but not fatter. Only lactating PC-fed mothers cannibalized their pups (approximately 60% eaten, 8/10 litters). The pregnancy-induced increased eating and hoarding of carbohydrate may have helped meet immediate energy needs sparing dwindling lipid reserves, whereas the decreased fetal lipid investment may have helped conserve energy in anticipation of the increased demands of lactation. The diet-induced exaggerated caloric intake and food hoard size of lactating hamsters may have promoted pup growth and survival.
PubMed ID
11890963 View in PubMed
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Differences in left ventricular mass between overweight and normal-weight preadolescent children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature153624
Source
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2008 Dec;33(6):1172-80
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2008
Author
Jose Peralta-Huertas
Kristina Livingstone
Alayna Banach
Panagiota Klentrou
Deborah O'Leary
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Applied Health Sciences, Brock University, St. Catharines, ON L2S3A1, Canada.
Source
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2008 Dec;33(6):1172-80
Date
Dec-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Anthropometry - methods
Blood Pressure - physiology
Body mass index
Body Weights and Measures - methods - statistics & numerical data
Cardiac Output - physiology
Child
Echocardiography - methods - statistics & numerical data
Ergometry - methods - statistics & numerical data
Female
Heart Rate - physiology
Heart Ventricles - anatomy & histology
Humans
Male
Motor Activity - physiology
Ontario - epidemiology
Organ Size - physiology
Overweight - epidemiology
Physical Fitness - physiology
Questionnaires
Sex Distribution
Stroke Volume - physiology
Abstract
This study examined cardiac and arterial differences between overweight and normal-weight preadolescent children. Twenty children (10.2 +/- 0.4 years of age) classified as overweight, on the basis of age-appropriate body mass index (BMI) cutoffs, were compared with 43 normal-weight controls. Height, mass, and body surface area were measured. Relative body fat and lean body mass were estimated from skinfold thickness. Each child's weekly physical activity metabolic equivalent (PAME) was calculated using a standardized questionnaire, and his or her sexual maturation was self-assessed using the Tanner scale. Peak aerobic power was assessed using a cycle ergometer and normalized to lean body mass. Mean arterial pressure was calculated from systolic and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) measurements taken with a Finapres. Cardiac dimensions were measured, using Mu-mode 2-dimensional echocardiography, and normalized to body surface area and height2.7. Left carotid artery pulse pressure (CaPP) was assessed with applanation tomometry. Overweight boys and girls had a higher left ventricular mass (LVM) and LVMHT2.7 than normal-weight boys and girls. CaPP was signficantly lower in the overweight than in the normal-weight groups, whereas PAME and relative peak aerobic power were significantly higher in the boys than the girls. Although overweight children had significantly higher stroke volumes and cardiac outputs than normal-weight children, ejection fraction was similar in the weight groups. Adjusted LVMHT2.7 was associated with cardiac volume measurements, BMI, and DBP in normal-weight children, whereas in the overweight children LVMHT2.7 did not significantly correlate with any variable. In conclusion, we found that cardiovascular adaptations can be seen in prepubescent overweight children as young as 10 years of age.
PubMed ID
19088775 View in PubMed
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28 records – page 1 of 3.