Class I and Class II restorations on selected teeth of children aged 7-13 years were recorded in order to find which types of restorations were suitable for clinical evaluation of amalgam restorations with regard to frequency and anticipated observation period. Restorations suited for amalgam evaluation were found to be MO type restoration on all first molars and occlusal, palatal, and occlusal/palatal restorations on maxillary first molars and buccal pit restorations on mandibllar first molars. For the age group 7-11 years, the MO type restoration in the first molars will reflect the caries situation; the DO type restoration on maxillary first molars will serve this purpose for an age group approximately 2-4 years older. Thus selected recording of restorations must be considered age dependent in order to give a representative reflection of the caries experience. The most striking difference between the groups with high and low restoration frequency was a 2-year delay in the group with low frequency as compared with the group with high restoration frequency.
Known risk factors for coronary heart disease do not explain all of the clinical and epidemiological features of the disease. To examine the role of chronic bacterial infections as risk factors for the disease the association between poor dental health and acute myocardial infarction was investigated in two separate case-control studies of a total of 100 patients with acute myocardial infarction and 102 controls selected from the community at random. Dental health was graded by using two indexes, one of which was assessed blind. Based on these indexes dental health was significantly worse in patients with acute myocardial infarction than in controls. The association remained valid after adjustment for age, social class, smoking, serum lipid concentrations, and the presence of diabetes. Further prospective studies are required in different populations to confirm the association and to elucidate its nature.
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Some pregnant women may be at increased risk of poor oral health. A publicly funded prenatal dental program in Vancouver, British Columbia, called Healthiest Babies Possible (HBP), has been providing oral health education and limited clinical services for over 20 years to low-income women assessed to be at high risk of preterm or low-weight births. This report is an assessment of the initial outcomes.
A prospective before-after evaluation of a non-probability convenience sample of women was undertaken over 1 year (2005-2006). Participants were seen at the customary 2 clinic visits, and were asked to return for a postnatal visit. Data collected by an inside evaluator, the program's dental hygienist, included questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, observations, clinical indices, appointment statistics and self-reports. Univariate and bivariate analyses (Student's t test and ANOVA) were performed.
Of the 67 women in the sample, 61 agreed to participate; 36 (59%) attended all 3 appointments at the clinic, and 40 (66%) completed all 3 interviews and questionnaires either at the clinic or by telephone. Clinical indices of gingival health improved significantly over the time of the evaluation. Improvements in tooth cleaning were demonstrated by a significant decrease in plaque (p
The purpose of the present study was primarily to establish the oral health status of young adults in the area of Porto, Portugal. The assessment is based on a random sample of 30- to 39-year-olds with criteria identical to those of a Norwegian study of 35-year-olds. This makes it possible also to present a comparative analysis of the caries prevalence in Oslo, Norway, and Porto, Portugal. The results indicate lower DMF scores among the Portuguese (DMFS = 46.2) than the Norwegian (DMFS = 85.0) adults. The difference is primarily due to a greater number of filled surfaces among the Norwegians (FS = 59.7) than the Portuguese (FS = 4.4). However, carious surfaces are more prevalent among Portuguese than Norwegian adults (DS = 9.2 versus DS = 3.3). Both among Portuguese and Norwegian adults, oral hygiene and dental visits seem to play an important role with regard to the prevalence of decayed surfaces. Decayed surfaces were more prevalent among men than women, and a correlation between social status and prevalence of decayed surfaces was present in both societies.
PURPOSE: To analyse caries risk factors of 12-13-year-old children living in Laos, using the computer program Cariogram to illustrate the caries risk profile. In addition, to compare the results with a study performed in Sweden. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred Laotian and 392 Swedish children were included. Interviews were performed to obtain information on diet intake and fluoride use. Saliva was analysed for mutans streptococci, lactobacilli and secretion rate/buffering capacity. Oral hygiene was assessed using the Silness and Löe criteria. Caries prevalence was recorded according to WHO. The data were entered into the Cariogram to determine each child's caries risk, expressed as 'the chance of avoiding caries'. The children were divided into five risk groups. RESULTS: Mean DMFT level of the Laotian children was 4.61 +/- 2.95 and 1.38 +/- 1.97 in the Swedish group. For the risk factors plaque amount, frequency of food intake, saliva secretion rate, buffering capacity and fluoride, the Laotian children had significantly less favourable values compared to the Swedes. Only 6% of Laotian children belonged to the Cariogram low risk group versus 40% of the Swedish children. The mean DMFT for the five Cariogram groups was (from low to high risk) 0.00, 3.00, 3.56, 5.66, 6.11 for the Lao children and 0.31, 1.39, 2.56, 3.03, 2.91 for the Swedish ones. The mean chance of avoiding caries was 37.3% for the Laotians and 69.2% for the Swedish children (p
Periodontal disease indicators were evaluated according to the periodontal treatment need system (PTNS) in random samples of 35-year-old citizens of Oslo in 1973 and 1984. The study indicated that although periodontal disease was a common finding in both samples, there was a significant reduction in score C (indicating need for complex periodontal treatment) in 1984 compared to 1973. Whereas 37.9% of the subjects showed inflamed pockets deeper than 5 mm (score C) in 1973, only 22.9% scored C in 1984 (non-Caucasians excluded). This reduction was most pronounced in females. The mean number of C-quadrants in subjects needing complex periodontal treatment was also reduced from 2.0 in 1973 to 1.7 in 1984. Further analyses of the 1984 sample showed that the mean number of C-quadrants was significantly lower in subjects with low OHI-S scores and in regular dental visitors, whereas sex, years at school, toothbrushing frequency, interdental cleaning habits, previous periodontal therapy, self-experienced need for treatment, health attitude or smoking habits, did not seem to influence the prevalence of score C.
A random sample of 35-year-old subjects from Oslo took part in a dental survey in 1973 and were re-examined in 1988. Eighty-one subjects (85%) attended the final examination. The need for periodontal treatment was assessed by the Periodontal Treatment Need System (PTNS), and the oral hygiene by the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S). The participants attended a structured interview and answered a questionnaire about general and dental health habits as well as psycho-social factors. Only small changes in the distribution of subjects in the different PTNS categories were found to have taken place during the 15 years. In 1973, 56.8% were in need of scaling (Class B) and 32.1% had one or more deep inflamed pockets (Class C), and in 1988 the scores were 54.3% and 30.1% respectively. A logistic regression model was used to study the associations between risk factors and increased treatment need, as expressed by increase in the number of C-quadrants. Increased number of C-quadrants was positively associated both with short duration of education and with no interdental cleaning. Using a socio-ecological model for periodontal diseases, variables describing the items "behaviour" and "environment" were found to be most closely associated with increased need for periodontal treatment.
An initial screening investigation of 1681 Swedish urban adults aged 31-40 years with untreated periodontitis showed that 17.2% (289) had at least one site with probing depth > or = 5 mm. The 289 subjects were offered a complete clinical examination and treatment. 144 subjects, 85 men and 59 women, agreed to participate and 145 were non-responding subjects and used as a drop out sample. The results from the screening data showed that the attendants had poorer oral hygiene status and more severe periodontitis than the drop out subjects. The present report describes clinical data of this representative sample with adult periodontitis. Clinical indices were recorded and bone height (BH%) for all teeth was measured with a computer digitizing system. In the 144 attendants, Plaque Index was > 1 in 56.2%, Calculus Index was > 1 in 57.0%, Gingival Index was > 1 in 97.2% and bleeding on probing was found in 89.1% of the sites. 11.1% of the subjects had 1-3 teeth with probing depth > or = 5 mm, 59.0% 4-10 teeth, 25.7% 11-20 teeth and 4.2% > 20 teeth. 47.9% of the subjects had mean BH% less than 80. 45.1% of the subjects had at least one site with an intrabony defect, of which 20% had 3-4 sites and 27.7% > or = 5 sites. It is concluded that advanced generalized periodontitis exists in a limited number of 31-40 year-olds in Sweden. Specific risk factors may be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease.