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289 records – page 1 of 29.

[3 cases of visceral leishmaniasis, one in a HIV-positive man]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature8254
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 1991 May 27;153(22):1591-2
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-27-1991
Author
U. Balslev
F. Jonsbo
J. Junge
K D Bentsen
Author Affiliation
Hvidovre Hospital, København.
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 1991 May 27;153(22):1591-2
Date
May-27-1991
Language
Danish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome - complications - diagnosis
Adult
English Abstract
HIV Seropositivity - complications - diagnosis
Humans
Infant
Leishmaniasis, Visceral - complications - diagnosis - drug therapy
Male
Opportunistic Infections - etiology
Abstract
Three cases of visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) are presented. One of these was in a 43-year-old patient with AIDS who was infected in Southern Spain. Another was in a man aged 25 years infected in West Africa. These cases are the first two adults to be reported in Denmark. The third case was an 18 month old previously healthy boy, infected in Southern Spain. The symptomtology, diagnosis and treatment of the disease are discussed and it is stressed that serological diagnostic tests have limited value in HIV positive patients.
PubMed ID
2058021 View in PubMed
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Adherence to clinical guidelines for the therapeutic management of HIV disease.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature207005
Source
Clin Invest Med. 1997 Dec;20(6):381-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1997
Author
K V Heath
R S Hogg
J. Singer
M T Schechter
M V O'Shaughnessy
J S Montaner
Author Affiliation
British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS, St. Paul's Hospital.
Source
Clin Invest Med. 1997 Dec;20(6):381-7
Date
Dec-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections - drug therapy - prevention & control
Anti-HIV Agents - therapeutic use
British Columbia
Data Collection
HIV Infections - drug therapy
Humans
Physician's Practice Patterns
Practice Guidelines as Topic
Questionnaires
Regression Analysis
Abstract
To determine the knowledge of HIV-disease management and the adherence to contemporary guidelines among British Columbia physicians whose practices focused on HIV/AIDS.
Self-administered mail survey.
All 659 physicians registered in a province-wide HIV/AIDS drug treatment program.
Data on demographic and personal characteristics of respondents, level of HIV-related experience, use of preventive vaccinations and tests, and preferred approaches to the prophylaxis and treatment of common opportunistic infections. Knowledge scores in 4 areas of patient care, as well as an overall score, were computed by comparing respondents' answers with the therapeutic strategies recommended at the time of the survey. Associations between physician characteristics and knowledge scores were identified by linear regression analysis.
Of the 659 physicians surveyed, 65% returned responses: only 38% returned completed surveys while a further 27% returned a follow-up survey that asked nonrespondents about their demographic characteristics and HIV-related experience. Scores for specific areas of patient management ranged from 29% for the treatment of opportunistic infections to 62% for preventive measures, with a mean overall score of 47%. Physician knowledge in all areas of patient care was associated with the number of HIV-positive patients in the practice (p = 0.003 to p
PubMed ID
9413635 View in PubMed
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Aerosolized pentamidine as primary prophylaxis for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia: efficacy, mortality and morbidity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature7970
Source
AIDS. 1994 Jul;8(7):935-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1994
Author
C. Lidman
O. Berglund
E. Tynell
S. Lindbäck
K. Elvin
Author Affiliation
Department of Infectious Diseases, Huddinge Hospital, Sweden.
Source
AIDS. 1994 Jul;8(7):935-9
Date
Jul-1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections - epidemiology - mortality - prevention & control
Absenteeism
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome - epidemiology
Adult
Aerosols
Disease Progression
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Male
Pentamidine - administration & dosage - therapeutic use
Pneumonia, Pneumocystis - epidemiology - mortality - prevention & control
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Zidovudine - therapeutic use
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Primary prophylaxis against Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) for patients with HIV infection has been recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. We evaluated alternatives to routine primary PCP prophylaxis with aerosolized pentamidine. METHODS: A total of 121 HIV-infected patients with CD4+ cell counts
Notes
Comment In: AIDS. 1995 Jan;9(1):1007893433
PubMed ID
7946102 View in PubMed
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After Toronto, 46th ICAAC offers back to basics.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature164419
Source
IAPAC Mon. 2006 Oct;12(10):354-65
Publication Type
Conference/Meeting Material
Article
Date
Oct-2006
Author
Keith Alcorn
Edwin J Bernard
Michael Carter
Adam Legge
Mark Mascolini
Derek Thaczuk
Source
IAPAC Mon. 2006 Oct;12(10):354-65
Date
Oct-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Conference/Meeting Material
Article
Keywords
AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections - drug therapy
Anti-HIV Agents - therapeutic use
Antibodies, Monoclonal - immunology
Cholesterol - blood
Disease Progression
Drug Resistance, Viral
HIV Infections - complications - drug therapy
Hepatitis C - complications
Humans
Ontario
Receptors, CCR5 - immunology
Abstract
After the marathon-like challenge presented by the 16th International AIDS Conference held in Toronto a month prior--a challenge that tested the stamina of even the youngest and fittest of conference-goers--the 46th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (ICAAC), held September 27-30, 2006, in San Francisco, was a welcome relief in its staid and singular focus on the presentation of data offering insights into the challenges a variety of patients and their physicians are facing in the second decade of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), as well as reviews of how to make optimal use of antiretroviral regimens constructed from within the existing HAART armamentarium. The big news at this year's ICAAC, however, was on the antiretroviral pipeline, with previews of how a new generation of drugs may help make the difference between life and death for countless millions of men, women, and children living with HIV/AIDS.
PubMed ID
17390499 View in PubMed
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The AIDS epidemic among Scandinavian women: 1980-1990.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature7988
Source
AIDS. 1994 May;8(5):689-92
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1994
Author
E. Smith
V. Hasseltvedt
M. Böttiger
Author Affiliation
Department of Epidemiology, Statens Seruminstitut, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Source
AIDS. 1994 May;8(5):689-92
Date
May-1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections - epidemiology
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome - epidemiology - mortality
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Blood Transfusion - adverse effects
Female
HIV Infections - transmission
Humans
Life tables
Middle Aged
Population Surveillance
Proportional Hazards Models
Risk factors
Scandinavia - epidemiology
Sexual Behavior - statistics & numerical data
Sexual Partners
Substance Abuse, Intravenous - epidemiology
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To describe trends and patterns in the AIDS epidemic among Scandinavian women with AIDS. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: All women with AIDS reported to national surveillance units in Denmark, Norway and Sweden in 1980-1990 were included for analyses. RESULTS: The number of heterosexually infected female AIDS cases increased over time. AIDS-defining diseases varied with transmission categories, a variation similar to that found among heterosexual Danish male AIDS cases. Heterosexually infected women were more frequently diagnosed with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia than with oesophagus candidiasis compared with intravenous drug using women. Twenty-five out of 56 heterosexually infected women reported having a male partner who was bisexual or from a Pattern II country, while one in four did not recognize any risk in their sex partner(s). Survival time increased between 1980 and 1990 and did not differ from survival in male AIDS cases. In a proportional hazards model, age, year of diagnosis and the duration of known HIV-positivity before development of AIDS had an independent impact on survival. The number of women known to be HIV-positive for more than 1 year before diagnosis of AIDS increased over time, although the number of women tested for HIV close to the development of AIDS was especially high among heterosexually infected women. CONCLUSION: Increasing numbers of heterosexually infected women are being diagnosed with AIDS in Scandinavia.
PubMed ID
8060549 View in PubMed
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[AIDS in children based on autopsy data from the Kalmyk ASSR].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature103697
Source
Arkh Patol. 1990;52(7):20-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
1990
Author
G G Vasil'eva
A V Tsinzerling
L A Kozhemiakin
I G Bondarenko
Source
Arkh Patol. 1990;52(7):20-6
Date
1990
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
AIDS Serodiagnosis
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome - complications - epidemiology - ethnology - pathology
Adolescent
Adult
Child
Child, Preschool
Female
HIV-1
Humans
Infant
Male
Opportunistic Infections - complications - epidemiology - ethnology - pathology
Residence Characteristics
Russia - epidemiology - ethnology
Urban Population - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
6 cases of HIV infection were revealed by enzyme immunoassay and immunoblotting among 144 children who had died in Elista. Another 5 children might have had HIV-infection but laboratory analyses either were lacking or gave doubtful results. Laboratory results were negative in 133 children. Similar severe changes of the lymphoid system typical for immunodeficiency were found in all children. These changes in HIV infection were characterized by lymphogenic generalized RNA infection. Complications (secondary diseases) in the form of DNA-virus infections (cytomegalia and herpes simplex), pneumocystosis and other viral and bacterial processes were observed in children of all groups. The disease was found mainly in Kalmyks. Blood examination of healthy Kalmyks revealed some differences in the form of significant decrease of the lysosomal cationic proteins content and the peroxydase activity of neutrophil leucocytes as compared to the same indexes obtained in Leningrad. There was also a tendency to the decrease of T-lymphocyte content. The children dying from immunodeficiencies lived mainly along the litoral of an ancient sea.
PubMed ID
2149495 View in PubMed
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[AIDS in Denmark. 1. Opportunistic infections and malignant diseases. Danish Study Group for HIV infection]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature7897
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 1995 Mar 6;157(10):1347-51
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-6-1995
Author
J D Lundgren
K D Bentsen
C. Pedersen
J. Gerstoft
T. Seefeldt-Nielsen
T L Nielsen
G F Jensen
Author Affiliation
Infektionsmedicinsk afdeling, Hvidovre Hospital, København.
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 1995 Mar 6;157(10):1347-51
Date
Mar-6-1995
Language
Danish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections - diagnosis - epidemiology - microbiology
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome - complications
Blood Transfusion - adverse effects
CD4 Lymphocyte Count
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes - immunology
Denmark - epidemiology
English Abstract
HIV Infections - complications
Humans
Male
Sarcoma, Kaposi - etiology
Sexual Behavior
Substance Abuse, Intravenous - complications
Abstract
To examine the distribution of AIDS-defining illnesses among Danish AIDS patients, data on 687 AIDS patients diagnosed in the period from 1980 to 1990 (93% of all reported cases in the period) were collected. The most frequent AIDS-defining illness was Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia followed by candida oesophagitis and Kaposis sarcoma. The proportion of homo/bisexual men presenting with Kaposis sarcoma as the initial AIDS-defining illness declined over time. Patients with extrapulmonary tuberculosis had higher CD4 cell counts than patients presenting with other illnesses. Cytomegalovirus chorioretinitis and atypical mycobacteriosis were seen more frequently after the time of the AIDS diagnosis, and a low CD4 cell count at time of the AIDS diagnosis was a significant predictor for the development of these opportunistic infections during follow-up. Danish AIDS patients present with a wide spectrum of HIV-related illnesses, reflecting their exposure to opportunistic microorganisms and the degree of immune deficiency. The pattern of HIV-related illnesses is changing over time, and therefore continuous surveillance is needed to optimize therapeutic and prophylactic regimens.
PubMed ID
7709482 View in PubMed
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American Academy of Pediatrics. Committee on Infectious Diseases. Policy statement: recommendations for the prevention of pneumococcal infections, including the use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (Prevnar), pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, and antibiotic prophylaxis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature5510
Source
Pediatrics. 2000 Aug;106(2 Pt 1):362-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2000
Source
Pediatrics. 2000 Aug;106(2 Pt 1):362-6
Date
Aug-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Antibiotic Prophylaxis
Bacterial Vaccines - administration & dosage - immunology
Child, Preschool
Humans
Immunization Schedule
Immunocompetence - immunology
Infant
Meningococcal Vaccines
Opportunistic Infections - immunology - prevention & control
Pneumococcal Infections - immunology - prevention & control
Pneumococcal Vaccines
Risk factors
Vaccines, Conjugate - administration & dosage - immunology
Abstract
Heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) is recommended for universal use in children 23 months and younger, to be given concurrently with other recommended childhood vaccines at 2, 4, 6, and 12 to 15 months of age. For children 7 to 23 months old who have not received previous doses of PCV7, administration of a reduced number of doses is recommended. Two doses of PCV7 are recommended for children 24 to 59 months old at high risk of invasive pneumococcal infection-including children with functional, anatomic, or congenital asplenia; infection with human immunodeficiency virus; and other predisposing conditions-who have not been immunized previously with PCV7. Recommendations have been made for use of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide (23PS) vaccine in high-risk children to expand serotype coverage. High-risk children should be given vaccines at the earliest possible opportunity. Use of antibiotic prophylaxis in children younger than 5 years with functional or anatomic asplenia, including children with sickle cell disease, continues to be recommended. Children who have not experienced invasive pneumococcal infection and have received recommended pneumococcal immunizations may discontinue prophylaxis after 5 years of age. The safety and efficacy of PCV7 and 23PS in children 24 months or older at moderate or lower risk of invasive pneumococcal infection remain under investigation. Current US Food and Drug Administration indications are for administration of PCV7 only to children younger than 24 months. Data are insufficient to recommend routine administration of PCV7 for children at moderate risk of pneumococcal invasive infection, including all children 24 to 35 months old, children 36 to 59 months old who attend out-of-home care, and children 36 to 59 months old who are of Native American (American Indian and Alaska Native) or African American descent. However, all children 24 to 59 months old, regardless of whether they are at low or moderate risk, may benefit from the administration of pneumococcal immunizations. Therefore, a single dose of PCV7 or 23PS vaccine may be given to children 24 months or older. The 23PS is an acceptable alternative to PCV7, although an enhanced immune response and probable reduction of nasopharyngeal carriage favor the use of PCV7 whenever possible.
PubMed ID
10920169 View in PubMed
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American Academy of Pediatrics. Committee on Infectious Diseases. Technical report: prevention of pneumococcal infections, including the use of pneumococcal conjugate and polysaccharide vaccines and antibiotic prophylaxis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature3161
Source
Pediatrics. 2000 Aug;106(2 Pt 1):367-76
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2000
Author
G D Overturf
Source
Pediatrics. 2000 Aug;106(2 Pt 1):367-76
Date
Aug-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Antibiotic Prophylaxis
Bacterial Vaccines - administration & dosage - adverse effects - immunology
Child, Preschool
Humans
Immunization Schedule
Infant
Meningococcal Vaccines
Opportunistic Infections - immunology - prevention & control
Pneumococcal Infections - immunology - prevention & control
Pneumococcal Vaccines
Risk factors
Treatment Outcome
Vaccines, Conjugate - administration & dosage - adverse effects - immunology
Abstract
Pneumococcal infections are the most common invasive bacterial infections in children in the United States. The incidence of invasive pneumococcal infections peaks in children younger than 2 years, reaching rates of 228/100,000 in children 6 to 12 months old. Children with functional or anatomic asplenia (including sickle cell disease [SCD]) and children with human immunodeficiency virus infection have pneumococcal infection rates 20- to 100-fold higher than those of healthy children during the first 5 years of life. Others at high risk of pneumococcal infections include children with congenital immunodeficiency; chronic cardiopulmonary disease; children receiving immunosuppressive chemotherapy; children with immunosuppressive neoplastic diseases; children with chronic renal insufficiency, including nephrotic syndrome; children with diabetes; and children with cerebrospinal fluid leaks. Children of Native American (American Indian and Alaska Native) or African American descent also have higher rates of invasive pneumococcal disease. Outbreaks of pneumococcal infection have occurred with increased frequency in children attending out-of-home care. Among these children, nasopharyngeal colonization rates of 60% have been observed, along with pneumococci resistant to multiple antibiotics. The administration of antibiotics to children involved in outbreaks of pneumococcal disease has had an inconsistent effect on nasopharyngeal carriage. In contrast, continuous penicillin prophylaxis in children younger than 5 years with SCD has been successful in reducing rates of pneumococcal disease by 84%. Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines have been recommended since 1985 for children older than 2 years who are at high risk of invasive disease, but these vaccines were not recommended for younger children and infants because of poor antibody response before 2 years of age. In contrast, pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (Prevnar) induce proposed protective antibody responses (>.15 microg/mL) in >90% of infants after 3 doses given at 2, 4, and 6 months of age. After priming doses, significant booster responses (ie, immunologic memory) are apparent when additional doses are given at 12 to 15 months of age. In efficacy trials, infant immunization with Prevnar decreased invasive infections by >93% and consolidative pneumonia by 73%, and it was associated with a 7% decrease in otitis media and a 20% decrease in tympanostomy tube placement. Adverse events after the administration of Prevnar have been limited to areas of local swelling or erythema of 1 to 2 cm and some increase in the incidence of postimmunization fever when it is given with other childhood vaccines. Based on data in phase 3 efficacy and safety trials, the US Food and Drug Administration has provided an indication for the use of Prevnar in children younger than 24 months.
PubMed ID
10920170 View in PubMed
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289 records – page 1 of 29.