To describe clinical features, risk factors and complications in a cohort of Swedish children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) screened for uveitis between 2002 and 2011.
Medical records of 299 children with JIA (93 male, 206 female; median age 5.0 years at diagnosis) were retrospectively scrutinized focusing on subtype of JIA, onset of arthritis/uveitis, presence of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and ophthalmological status.
Uveitis was found in 32 (11%) children, 78% bilaterally affected. The median age of arthritis onset in children who developed uveitis was 2.5 years (range 1-10) versus 5.0 years (range 1-15) in those who did not. Sex ratio was 3.5:1 (girl:boy). The most prevalent JIA subtype was oligoarthritis (75%). All but one child with uveitis was found to be ANA (+). The median interval between diagnosis of arthritis and uveitis was 12 months. Only one child developed uveitis between the fourth and fifth years after arthritis onset. Ocular complications were recorded in 45.6% (26/57 affected eyes) at last follow-up. On univariate analysis, both young age at arthritis onset and ANA positivity were possible predictors for developing uveitis, but on multivariate analysis, the latter was the most important predictor (HR 16.25, 95%; CI 2.19-120.44; p = 0.006, Cox regression analysis).
Almost all of the children developing JIA-associated uveitis did so within 4 years after arthritis onset, a fact that accentuates the importance of early initiation of ophthalmological screening and more frequent regular follow-ups during the first 4 years. The most important predictor for developing uveitis was ANA positivity.
There are significant disparities in access to health care amongst Aboriginal Canadians. The purpose of this study was to determine whether tele-ophthalmology services, provided to Aboriginal Canadians in a culturally-sensitive community-based clinic, could overcome social and cultural barriers in ways that would be difficult in the traditional hospital-based setting.
The Aboriginal Diabetes Wellness Program of Alberta incorporates culturally-sensitive health-related activities and rituals as a component of a diabetic retinopathy tele-ophthalmology screening program. Metrics of program attendance were collected while stakeholders participated in a survey to identify barriers to healthcare delivery.
Aboriginal patients, cultural liaison, nurses and program administrators revealed economic, geographic, social and cultural barriers to healthcare faced by Aboriginal people. It was found that the introduction of culturally-sensitive programs led to increased appointment attendance; from 25% to 85%. Involvement of Aboriginal nurses, inclusion of culturally-sensitive activities and participation in spiritual ceremonies led to qualitative accounts of increased patient satisfaction, trust towards the healthcare team and communication amongst participants.
A culturally-sensitive model of healthcare delivery in a community-based health clinic improved access to tele-ophthalmology services. This was demonstrated by increased attendance at appointments and increased satisfaction amongst patients.
The article presents an analysis of Russian eye care performance indicators based on federal and sector statistics over the recent years provided by the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, that is the incidence of eye diseases, eye care equipment provision, inpatient and outpatient volumes. Legal acts of the Russian Federation on health system in general and eye care in particular were taken into consideration when preparing the section on organizational matters. Problems of human resources, efficiency of specialists' time management, hospital beds use, and administrative issues in particular regions and Russia as a whole are discussed.
Guidelines for screening examinations for retinopathy of prematurity. Canadian Association of Pediatric Ophthalmologists Ad Hoc Committee on Standards of Screening Examination for Retinopathy of Prematurity.
Health literacy represents the cognitive and social skills that determine the motivation and ability of individuals to gain access to, understand, and use information in ways that promote and maintain good health.(1) According to the 2003 International Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey (IALSS), over 12 million (60%) adult Canadians lack the capacity to obtain, understand, and act on health information and services, as well as make appropriate health decisions on their own.(2,3) Of these 12 million Canadians, the elderly are the most health illiterate age group in Canada. What this suggests for Canadian physicians is that to improve the CanMEDS roles of communicator and health advocate,(4) physicians need to recognize health literacy as a modifiable contributor of poor health outcomes and work to remove literacy-related barriers.(5) This is particularly important for ophthalmologists who manage chronic illnesses in elderly patients.(2,6,7) The objective of this review is 2-fold. The first objective is to describe health literacy in Canada and provide a summary on the current state of health literacy research, both generally in medicine and specifically to Ophthalmology. The second objective is to propose a 3-step approach of evidence based techniques for managing low health literate patients in clinic.
We studied the incidence of blindness and visual impairment in patients who were enrolled in a photographic control- and screening program for diabetic retinopathy. The study cohort consisted of 2133 patients examined between January 1990 and December 1992 and followed until October 1st 1995. The occurrence of blindness (visual acuity or = 8.5%, were associated with a 65% increase in risk of blindness/visual impairment (95% confidence interval 14-130%). Retinopathy was the major cause of blindness and visual impairment in patients with diabetes. The study revealed a low incidence of blindness, which is in line with recent reports. Control of hyperglycaemia may be of value for the prevention of visual loss.
BACKGROUND: Canada's vast size and remote rural communities represent a significant hurdle for successful monitoring and evaluation of diabetic retinopathy.Teleophthalmology may provide a solution to overcome this problem. We investigated the application of Joint Photographic Experts Group (PEG) compression to digital retinal images to determine whether JPEG compression could reduce file sizes while maintaining sufficient quality and detail to accurately diagnose diabetic retinopathy. METHODS: All 20 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus assessed at a 1-day teleophthalmology clinic in northern Alberta were enrolled in the study. Following pupil dilation, seven 30 degrees fields of each fundus were digitally photographed at a resolution of 2008 x 3040 pixels and saved in uncompressed tagged image file format (TIFF). The files were compressed approximately 55x and 113x their original size using JPEG compression. A reviewer in Edmonton randomly viewed all original TIFF images along with the compressed JPEG images in a masked fashion for image quality and for specific diabetic retinal pathology in accordance with Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study standards. The level of diabetic retinopathy and recommendations for clinical follow-up were also recorded. Exact agreement and weighted kappa statistics, a measure of reproducibility, were calculated. RESULTS: Exact agreement between the compressed JPEG images and the TIFF images was high (75% to 100%) for all measured variables at both compression levels. Reproducibility was good to excellent at both compression levels for the identification of diabetic retinal abnormalities (K = 0.45-1), diagnosis of level of retinopathy (kappa = 0.73-1) and recommended follow-up (kappa = 0.64-1). INTERPRETATION:The application of JPEG compression at ratios of 55:1 and 113:1 did not significantly interfere with the identification of specific diabetic retinal pathology, diagnosis of level of retinopathy or recommended follow-up. These results indicate that JPEG compression at ratios as high as 113:1 has the potential to reduce storage requirements without interfering with the accurate and reproducible teleophthalmologic diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy.This pilot project demonstrates the potential for JPEG compression within a digital teleophthalmology viewing system.
OBJECTIVE: 1) To evaluate the management of acute isolated optic neuritis (ON) by ophthalmologists and neurologists; 2) to evaluate the impact of clinical trials; 3) to compare these practices among 7 countries. METHODS: A survey on diagnosis and treatment of acute isolated ON was sent to 5,443 neurologists and 6,099 ophthalmologists in the southeast-USA, Canada, Australia/New Zealand, Denmark, France, and Thailand. USA data were compared to those of other countries. RESULTS: We collected 3,142 surveys (1,449 neurologists/1,693 ophthalmologists) (29.8% response rate). In all countries, ON patients more frequently presented to ophthalmologists, and were subsequently referred to neurologists or subspecialists. Evaluation and management of ON varied among countries, mostly because of variations in healthcare systems, imaging access, and local guidelines. A brain MRI was obtained for 70-80% of ON patients; lumbar punctures were obtained mostly in Europe and Thailand. Although most patients received acute treatment with intravenous steroids, between 14% and 65% of neurologists and ophthalmologists still recommended oral prednisone (1 mg/kg/day) for the treatment of acute isolated ON. In all countries, steroids were often prescribed to improve visual outcome or to decrease the long-term risk of multiple sclerosis. INTERPRETATION: Although recent clinical trials have changed the management of acute ON around the world, many neurologists and ophthalmologists do not evaluate and treat acute ON patients according to the best evidence from clinical research. This confirms that evaluation of the impact of major clinical trials ("translational T2 clinical research") is essential when assessing the effects of interventions designed to improve quality of care.
Acute isolated optic neuritis is often the first manifestation of multiple sclerosis (MS), and its management remains controversial. Over the past decade, with the advent of new disease-modifying agents, management of isolated optic neuritis has become more complicated.
To evaluate the current practice patterns of Canadian ophthalmologists and neurologists in the management of acute optic neuritis, and to evaluate the impact of recently published randomized clinical trials.
All practicing ophthalmologists and neurologists in Canada were mailed a survey evaluating the management of isolated acute optic neuritis and familiarity with recent clinical trials. Surveys for 1158 were mailed, and completed surveys were collected anonymously through a datafax system. Second and third mailings were sent to non-respondents 6 and 12 weeks later.
The final response rate was 34.5%. Although many acute optic neuritis patients initially present to ophthalmologists, neurologists are the physicians primarily managing these patients. Ordering magnetic resonance imaging, and treating with high dose intravenous steroids has become the standard of care. However, 15% of physicians (14% of ophthalmologists and 16% of neurologists) continue to prescribe low dose oral steroids, and steroids are being given for reasons other than to shorten the duration of visual symptoms by 73% of ophthalmologists and 50% of neurologists. More neurologists than ophthalmologists are familiar with recent clinical trials involving disease-modifying agents.
Although the management of acute optic neuritis has been evaluated in large clinical trials that were published in major international journals, some ophthalmologists and neurologists are not following evidence-based recommendations.
Cites: N Engl J Med. 1993 Dec 9;329(24):1764-98232485