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3803 records – page 1 of 381.

A 2-year community-randomized controlled trial of fluoride varnish to prevent early childhood caries in Aboriginal children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature157658
Source
Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2008 Dec;36(6):503-16
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2008
Author
Herenia P Lawrence
Darlene Binguis
Jan Douglas
Lynda McKeown
Bonita Switzer
Rafael Figueiredo
Audrey Laporte
Author Affiliation
Community Dentistry Discipline, Department of Biological and Diagnostic Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. herenia.lawrence@utoronto.ca
Source
Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2008 Dec;36(6):503-16
Date
Dec-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Caregivers - education
Cariostatic Agents - administration & dosage - therapeutic use
Child, Preschool
Cluster analysis
DMF Index
Dental Caries - epidemiology - prevention & control
Female
Fluorides, Topical - therapeutic use
Health Education, Dental
Health Status Disparities
Humans
Incidence
Indians, North American
Infant
Logistic Models
Male
Ontario - epidemiology
Prevalence
Sodium Fluoride - administration & dosage
Tooth, Deciduous
Abstract
To measure the effectiveness of fluoride varnish (FV) (Duraflor), 5% sodium fluoride, Pharmascience Inc., Montréal, QC, Canada) and caregiver counseling in preventing early childhood caries (ECC) in Aboriginal children in a 2-year community-randomized controlled trial.
Twenty First Nations communities in the Sioux Lookout Zone (SLZ), Northwest Ontario, Canada were randomized to two study groups. All caregivers received oral health counseling, while children in one group received FV twice per year and the controls received no varnish. A total of 1275, 6 months to 5-year-old children from the SLZ communities were enrolled. In addition, a convenience sample of 150 primarily non-Aboriginal children of the same age were recruited from the neighboring community of Thunder Bay and used as comparisons. Longitudinal examinations for the dmft/s indices were conducted by calibrated hygienists in 2003, 2004 and 2005.
Aboriginal children living in the SLZ or in Thunder Bay had significantly higher caries prevalence and severity than non-Aboriginal children in Thunder Bay. FV treatment conferred an 18% reduction in the 2-year mean 'net' dmfs increment for Aboriginal children and a 25% reduction for all children, using cluster analysis to adjust for the intra-cluster correlation among children in the same community. Adjusted odds ratio for caries incidence was 1.96 times higher in the controls than in the FV group (95% CI = 1.08-3.56; P = 0.027). For those caries-free at baseline, the number (of children) needed to treat (NNT) equaled 7.4.
Findings support the use of FV at least twice per year, in conjunction with caregiver counseling, to prevent ECC, reduce caries increment and oral health inequalities between young Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children.
PubMed ID
18422711 View in PubMed
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A 4-year review of severe pediatric trauma in eastern Ontario: a descriptive analysis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature191929
Source
J Trauma. 2002 Jan;52(1):8-12
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2002
Author
Martin H Osmond
Maureen Brennan-Barnes
Allyson L Shephard
Author Affiliation
Department of Pediatrics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. osmond@cheo.on.ca
Source
J Trauma. 2002 Jan;52(1):8-12
Date
Jan-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accident prevention
Accidental Falls - prevention & control - statistics & numerical data
Accidents, Traffic - prevention & control - statistics & numerical data
Adolescent
Age Distribution
Athletic Injuries - epidemiology - etiology - prevention & control
Child
Child Abuse - prevention & control - statistics & numerical data
Child, Preschool
Craniocerebral Trauma - epidemiology - etiology - prevention & control
Female
Hospitals, Pediatric - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Ontario - epidemiology
Retrospective Studies
Sex Distribution
Time Factors
Trauma Centers - statistics & numerical data
Trauma Severity Indices
Wounds and Injuries - epidemiology - etiology - prevention & control
Abstract
The objective of this study was to describe a population of children admitted to a tertiary care pediatric hospital with severe trauma to identify key areas for injury prevention research, and programming.
Retrospective chart review conducted on all children 0-17 years admitted to the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario (CHEO) between April 1, 1996, and March 31, 2000, following acute trauma. Each record was reviewed and assigned an ISS using the AIS 1990 revision. All cases with an ISS > 11 were included in the study.
There were 2610 trauma cases admitted to CHEO over the study period. Of these, 237 (9.1%) had severe trauma (ISS > 11). Sixty-two percent were male. Twenty-nine percent were between the ages of 10 and 14 years, 27% between 5 and 9 years, 16% between 15 and 17 years, 15% between 1 and 4 years, and 13% less than 1 year old. The most common mechanisms of injury were due to motor vehicle traffic (39%), falls (24%), child abuse (8%), and sports (5%). Of those resulting from motor vehicle traffic, 53 (57%) were occupants, 22 (24%) were pedestrians, and 18 (19%) were cyclists. When combining traffic and nontraffic mechanisms, 26 (11% of all severe trauma cases) occurred as a result of cycling incidents. The most severe injury in 65% of patients was to the head and neck body region.
Research efforts and activities to prevent severe pediatric trauma in our region should focus on road safety, protection from head injuries, avoidance of falls, and prevention of child abuse.
PubMed ID
11791045 View in PubMed
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A 7-year retrospective review from 2005 to 2011 of Propionibacterium acnes shoulder infections in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature117999
Source
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2013 Feb;75(2):195-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2013
Author
Bing Wang
Baldwin Toye
Marc Desjardins
Peter Lapner
Craig Lee
Author Affiliation
Division of Microbiology, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2013 Feb;75(2):195-9
Date
Feb-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Arthroplasty
Chi-Square Distribution
Female
Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections - epidemiology - microbiology
Humans
Joint Diseases - epidemiology - microbiology
Male
Middle Aged
Ontario - epidemiology
Propionibacterium acnes - isolation & purification
Prosthesis-Related Infections - epidemiology - microbiology
Retrospective Studies
Shoulder Joint - microbiology
Abstract
This study evaluated the clinical factors associated with Propionibacterium acnes shoulder infection and the standard culture procedures for isolating P. acnes from shoulder specimens by a 7-year retrospective analysis. P. acnes was incriminated as the second most common pathogen in 17 of 80 patients with positive shoulder cultures. All of the 17 patients had prior shoulder implant. The cumulative rates for isolating P. acnes were 1.9%, 1.9%, 41.9%, 96.4%, and 100% at day 1 to day 5 of incubation, respectively. The standard practice of anaerobic culture was able to detect P. acnes from shoulder specimens in patients with a clinical suspicion of infection. The sensitivity and specificity of prolonged incubation remain to be determined.
PubMed ID
23246074 View in PubMed
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8th Annual Toronto Critical Care Medicine Symposium, 30 October-1 November 2003, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature181450
Source
Crit Care. 2004 Feb;8(1):58-66
Publication Type
Conference/Meeting Material
Date
Feb-2004
Author
Jeff Granton
John Granton
Author Affiliation
Programme Director, Critical Care Medicine Programme, University of Toronto, Canada. john.Granton@uhn.on.ca
Source
Crit Care. 2004 Feb;8(1):58-66
Date
Feb-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Conference/Meeting Material
Keywords
Blood Transfusion - adverse effects - utilization
Critical Care
Cross Infection - epidemiology
Humans
Intensive Care Units
Ontario - epidemiology
Respiration, Artificial
Sepsis - therapy
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome - epidemiology
Terminal Care
Notes
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PubMed ID
14975048 View in PubMed
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A 10 mg warfarin initiation nomogram is safe and effective in outpatients starting oral anticoagulant therapy for venous thromboembolism.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature153058
Source
Thromb Res. 2009 Jul;124(3):275-80
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2009
Author
Katherine Monkman
Alejandro Lazo-Langner
Michael J Kovacs
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Thromb Res. 2009 Jul;124(3):275-80
Date
Jul-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Administration, Oral
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Ambulatory Care - methods
Anticoagulants - administration & dosage
Comorbidity
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Female
Hemorrhage - mortality
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Ontario - epidemiology
Retrospective Studies
Survival Rate
Treatment Outcome
Venous Thromboembolism - drug therapy - mortality
Warfarin - administration & dosage
Young Adult
Abstract
The optimal means of initiating warfarin therapy for acute venous thromboembolism in the outpatient setting remains controversial. We have previously demonstrated the efficacy of a 10 mg initiation nomogram in a randomized controlled trial; however, some clinicians remain reluctant to use this nomogram due to a fear of potential increased bleeding. To review the safety and efficacy of a 10 mg warfarin nomogram we conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients prospectively treated for venous thromboembolism according to a 10 mg nomogram in an outpatient thrombosis clinic. All patients received standard treatment with low molecular weight heparin for 5 to 7 days and warfarin for at least 3 months. Four-hundred and fourteen patients were included in the analysis, of whom 295 (71%) fully adhered to the nomogram. In the whole cohort, 8 patients (1.9%) experienced recurrent thrombosis, 4 (0.97%) suffered a major bleeding event, and 3 (0.72%) suffered a minor bleeding event. There were no deaths related to thrombosis or bleeding. Four patients (0.97%) died from unrelated causes. Twenty-two (5.3%) patients experienced an INR > or =5.0 in the first 8 days of therapy, and none of these patients experienced a bleeding event. Eighty-four percent of patients achieved a therapeutic INR by day 5. In outpatients, a 10 mg nomogram results in timely achievement of a therapeutic INR with an acceptable incidence of bleeding and recurrent thromboembolism.
PubMed ID
19155056 View in PubMed
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A 10-year population-based cohort analysis of cataract surgery rates in Ontario.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature162363
Source
Can J Ophthalmol. 2007 Aug;42(4):552-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2007
Author
Wendy V Hatch
Geta Cernat
Shaun Singer
Chaim M Bell
Author Affiliation
Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences, University of Toronto, Ont.
Source
Can J Ophthalmol. 2007 Aug;42(4):552-6
Date
Aug-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Distribution
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Cataract - epidemiology
Cataract Extraction - statistics & numerical data - trends
Cohort Studies
Female
Humans
Male
National Health Programs - statistics & numerical data
Ontario - epidemiology
Sex Distribution
Abstract
We studied the rates and distribution of cataract surgery throughout Ontario using population-based administrative data.
We identified patients who had had cataract surgery performed between April 1, 1994, and March 31, 2005. We calculated crude cataract surgery rates, overall and regional adjusted rates per 100,000 residents aged 65 and over, and age- and sex-specific rates.
The number of cataract surgeries performed on patients over 65 more than doubled, from 43,818 to 90,183, over the 10-year period and accounted for approximately 81% of all cataract surgeries in Ontario. Age- and sex-adjusted rates varied considerably among health administrative geographic regions. For 2004-2005, rates including all cataract surgeries ranged from 4272 to 6563 cataract surgeries per 100,000 residents aged 65 or older.
There has been a significant increase in the number of cataract surgeries performed over the past decade in Ontario with considerable regional variation. Observed rates were higher than those reported for other countries.
PubMed ID
17641696 View in PubMed
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A 10-year review of p-phenylenediamine allergy and related para-amino compounds at the Ottawa Patch Test Clinic.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature123867
Source
Dermatitis. 2011 Nov-Dec;22(6):332-4
Publication Type
Article
Author
Lauren LaBerge
Melanie Pratt
Bensun Fong
Genevieve Gavigan
Author Affiliation
Department of Dermatology, University of Ottawa, 1053 Carling Ave., Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. lfratesi@hotmail.com
Source
Dermatitis. 2011 Nov-Dec;22(6):332-4
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
4-Aminobenzoic Acid - adverse effects
Allergens - adverse effects
Amines - adverse effects
Azo Compounds - adverse effects
Canada - epidemiology
Coloring Agents - adverse effects
Cross Reactions
Dermatitis, Allergic Contact - epidemiology - etiology
Female
Hair Dyes - adverse effects
Humans
Male
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects
Ontario - epidemiology
Patch Tests
Phenylenediamines - adverse effects
Sulfonamides - adverse effects
Textiles
Time Factors
Abstract
p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) is an important allergen; 5.0% of patients tested positive to PPD when patch-tested, according to the North American Contact Dermatitis Group. Hair dyes are the main source of exposure.
To assess the significance of PPD allergy at the Ottawa Patch Test Clinic.
We assessed the epidemiology of PPD allergies and determined the cross-reactivity with other para-amino compounds. Charts of patients visiting the Ottawa Patch Test Clinic between May 1997 and July 2009 were reviewed.
One hundred thirty-four patients were found to have a contact allergy to PPD; 75.4% were female, 24.6% were male, 13.4% were hairdressers, 18.7% had a history of atopy, 90.3% were sensitized by hair dye, 2.2% were sensitized by henna tattoos, and 7.5% were sensitized by other sources. Positive patch-test reactions to textile dyes were seen in 24.6%, 7.5% reacted to benzocaine, 6.0% reacted to sulfa drugs, 1.5% reacted to isopropyl-para-phenylenediamine, and 1.5% reacted to para-aminobenzoic acid.
PPD is an important source of allergic contact allergy. Our results show a significant relationship of PPD with other related para-amino compounds.
PubMed ID
22653006 View in PubMed
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12-month follow-up of an exploratory 'brief intervention' for high-frequency cannabis users among Canadian university students.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature124885
Source
Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy. 2012;7:15
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Benedikt Fischer
Wayne Jones
Paul Shuper
Jürgen Rehm
Author Affiliation
Centre for Applied Research in Mental Health and Addictions, Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, 2400, 515 West Hastings St,, Vancouver, BC, V6B 5K3, Canada. bfischer@sfu.ca
Source
Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy. 2012;7:15
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Health Promotion - methods
Humans
Male
Marijuana Smoking - epidemiology - prevention & control
Ontario - epidemiology
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
Questionnaires
Risk Reduction Behavior
Young Adult
Abstract
One in three young people use cannabis in Canada. Cannabis use can be associated with a variety of health problems which occur primarily among intensive/frequent users. Availability and effectiveness of conventional treatment for cannabis use is limited. While Brief Interventions (BIs) have been shown to result in short-term reductions of cannabis use risks or problems, few studies have assessed their longer-term effects. The present study examined 12-month follow-up outcomes for BIs in a cohort of young Canadian high-frequency cannabis users where select short-term effects (3 months) had previously been assessed and demonstrated.
N=134 frequent cannabis users were recruited from among university students in Toronto, randomized to either an oral or a written cannabis BI, or corresponding health controls, and assessed in-person at baseline, 3-months, and 12-months. N=72 (54%) of the original sample were retained for follow-up analyses at 12-months where reductions in 'deep inhalation/breathholding' (Q=13.1; p
Notes
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PubMed ID
22538183 View in PubMed
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A 13-year cohort study of musculoskeletal disorders treated in an autoplant, on-site physiotherapy clinic.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature160671
Source
J Occup Rehabil. 2007 Dec;17(4):610-22
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2007
Author
Jackie Sadi
Joy C MacDermid
Bert Chesworth
Trevor Birmingham
Author Affiliation
School of Physical Therapy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada. jsadi2@uwo.ca
Source
J Occup Rehabil. 2007 Dec;17(4):610-22
Date
Dec-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Automobiles
Female
Humans
Industry
Male
Musculoskeletal Diseases - epidemiology - therapy
Occupational Diseases - epidemiology - therapy
Occupational Health
Ontario - epidemiology
Physical Therapy Modalities
Retrospective Studies
Risk factors
Time Factors
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to describe the rate and distribution of treatment visits provided in an on-site, automotive plant, physiotherapy clinic over a 13-year period.
A retrospective cohort study was conducted using data collected at an on-site physiotherapy clinic (1990-2002, 65,977 visits; n = 2,636 workers).
The average age of workers was 43 +/- 9 years; most remained at work (85%) when treated. Disorders most commonly affected the shoulder, lumbar, and cervical regions; the median number of visits for these was 7, 6, and 5, respectively. Elbow disorders occurred commonly only for work-related complaints and required a median of eight visits. Rate of utilization was higher for women, with 47% of the plant's female workers attending physiotherapy in 1 year. Women had higher rates of cervical spine (12 vs. 22%) and wrist (5 vs. 10%) disorders. The two most common causes of injury reported by workers with an industrial injury were "frank injury arising out of normal employment" (51%) and "gradual onset/no frank injury" (37%). The diagnosis most often reported by the physiotherapist after initial assessment was "strain" which was similar for both industrial (43%) and non-industrial (49%) injuries. The six main departments in this automotive plant account for 93% of all industrial injuries reported. Final Assembly accounted for the largest number and highest rate of injury, although shift variability was noted in utilization rates (13 vs. 26%), despite the same tasks, shift schedules, and demographics. Although there was no control group, the number of visits to discharge was lower than reported in the literature for off-site physical therapy; there was a large reduction in claims (441-275) following introduction of the clinic and reduced duration/costs of lost time were identified by the employer as a rationale to continue and enhance the service over time.
On-site physiotherapy services can provide early, cost-effective management of WRMSD in the automotive sector. Service utilization reflects the influence of gender, job task, and shift-dynamics on rates and location of WRMSD.
PubMed ID
17955347 View in PubMed
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3803 records – page 1 of 381.