A double-blind, randomized, parallel, comparative study was designed to evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of subgingivally administered minocycline ointment versus a vehicle control.
One hundred four patients (104) with moderate to severe adult periodontitis (34 to 64 years of age; mean 46 years) were enrolled in the study. Following scaling and root planing, patients were randomized to receive either 2% minocycline ointment or a matched vehicle control. Study medication was administered directly into the periodontal pocket with a specially designed, graduated, disposable applicator at baseline; week 2; and at months 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12. Scaling and root planing was repeated at months 6 and 12. Standard clinical variables (including probing depth and attachment level) were evaluated at baseline and at months 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15. Microbiological sampling using DNA probes was done at baseline; at week 2; and at months 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15.
Both treatment groups showed significant and clinically relevant reductions in the numbers of each of the 7 microorganisms measured during the entire 15-month study period. When differences were detected, sites treated with minocycline ointment always produced statistically significantly greater reductions than sites which received the vehicle control. For initial pockets > or =5 mm, a mean reduction in probing depth of 1.9 mm was seen in the test sites, versus 1.2 mm in the control sites. Sites with a baseline probing depth > or =7 mm and bleeding index >2 showed an average of 2.5 mm reduction with minocycline versus 1.5 mm with the vehicle. Gains in attachment (0.9 mm and 1.1 mm) were observed in minocycline-treated sites, with baseline probing depth > or =5 mm and > or =7 mm, respectively, compared with 0.5 mm and 0.7 mm gain at control sites. Subgingival administration of minocycline ointment was well tolerated.
Overall, the results demonstrate that repeated subgingival administration of minocycline ointment in the treatment of adult periodontitis is safe and leads to significant adjunctive improvement after subgingival instrumentation in both clinical and microbiologic variables over a 15-month period.
Many investigations suggest that a high degree of air-borne pollution increases the prevalence of diseases like asthma and eczema. SÃ¸r-Varanger Municipality in Finnmark County in the north of Norway receives much air-borne pollution from domestic industry and from the metallurgic industry on the Kola peninsula in North-Western Russia. We have investigated indirect parameters of morbidity caused by asthma and eczema by analyzing data on drug consumption and hospital admissions. In SÃ¸r-Varanger there is high consumption of corticosteroids for dermatological use. Consumption of anti-asthmatic drugs and number of admissions to hospital for asthma and eczema were no higher than expected. We suspect that air-borne pollution, particularly the heavy metal nickel, increases the prevalence and perhaps worsens the degree of eczema in SÃ¸r-Varanger.
The negative outcomes associated with painful and damaged nipples have been widely documented in the breastfeeding literature. Numerous studies have been conducted evaluating topical preparations to treat nipple pain and damage with equivocal findings. No studies have evaluated the effectiveness of the increasingly popular all-purpose nipple ointment (APNO). The purpose of this trial is to evaluate the effect of the APNO versus lanolin on nipple pain among breastfeeding women with damaged nipples.
A double-blind, randomized controlled trial was conducted in a large single-site, tertiary-care hospital in Toronto, ON, Canada. Breastfeeding women (n=151) identified as having damage to one or both nipples were randomized to apply either APNO (intervention group) or lanolin (control group) to their nipples according to the trial protocol. The primary outcome was nipple pain at 1 week after randomization measured using the Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire. Additional outcomes at 1 week after randomization and 12 weeks postpartum included nipple yeast symptoms and/or mastitis, rates of breastfeeding duration and exclusivity, and maternal satisfaction with infant feeding method and treatment ointment.
There were no significant group differences in mean pain scores at 1 week after randomization. Women in the lanolin group reported significantly greater satisfaction with their infant feeding method and had nonsignificantly higher breastfeeding duration and exclusivity rates at 12 weeks postpartum.
Results suggest that APNO is not superior to lanolin in treating painful, damaged nipples.
At 51 men at the age from 20 till 30, sick with pyodermatitis, the clinical-immunological aspects and efficiency of-actoprotector, capable to support motor activity and human performance in the extreme environments. Bemitil has appeared more effective in comparison with conventional therapy: by general and combined application the parameters of immunity have been normalized statistically authentically, and at outside application-the places of damage were cleared faster, disappeared painfulness, hyperemia, edema, terms of staying in the hospital were reduced. The clinical recovery was in 86.3 +/- 4.8% of the patients, while effectiveness from conventional means was 62.1 +/- 6.8%.
Application employment of the proposed nitroglycerin ointment, original in its composition, permits the attacks of angina pectoris to be controlled, their onset to be prevented and adverse events associated with the use of nitrates to be eliminated. Therapeutic benefit becomes clinically apparent with small doses of nitroglycerin, the ointment itself is good for repeated therapeutic and prophylactic application.
Application of 1% of chloramphenicol (gel and cream) for local treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa burn infection has been studied in experiment. In vivo, both medical forms show pronounced therapeutic effect, they promote elimination of P. aeruginosa from wounds and decrease inflammation. In noninfected thermal trauma in laboratory animals application of gel and cream of chloramphenicol reduces transition from the phase of inflammation to the phase of reparation by 3-8 days and prevents infection of the burn wound by conditionally pathogenic microflora.
Peritonitis is the most common infectious complication seen in peritoneal dialysis (PD). Traditionally, exit site infection (ESI) has been thought to predispose PD patients to peritonitis, although the risks have not been quantified. This study aimed to quantify the risk of PD peritonitis after ESI.
Data from 203 clinically stable PD patients >18 years of age who were followed as part of a randomized controlled trial over 18 months were used to estimate the risk of developing peritonitis within 30 days of an ESI compared with individuals who did not have a recent ESI. Sensitivity analyses were performed at 15, 45, and 60 days.
Patients were mostly male (64.5%) and Caucasian, with a mean age of 60.5 ? 14.4 years. There were 44 ESIs and 87 peritonitis episodes during the 18-month study. Seven patients had an ESI followed by peritonitis within 30 days. Using a frailty model, patients who had an ESI had a significantly higher risk of developing peritonitis within 30 days, even if the ESI was appropriately treated. This risk was maximal early on and diminished with time, with hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) of 11.1 at 15 days (HR=11.1, 95% CI=4.9-25.1), 5.3 at 45 days (2.5-11.3), and 4.9 at 60 days (2.4-9.9). In 2.3% of patients, subsequent peritonitis was caused by the same organism as the previous ESI.
A strong association between a treated ESI and subsequent PD peritonitis was present up to 60 days after initial diagnosis.
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An increased incidence of fusidic acid-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains causing superficial infections among children in Sweden has been noted since the mid-1990s. Based on routine susceptibility testing data from 10 laboratories representing 8/21 Swedish counties during 1990-2001, the increase was first demonstrated in southern Sweden and subsequently became apparent throughout the country. Epidemiological typing using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of recent isolates of fusidic acid-resistant S. aureus from 11 laboratories representing 8/21 Swedish counties revealed a high degree of similarity of band patterns, indicating a clonal relationship. Data from 1 of the laboratories demonstrated a close connection between this clone and impetigo. Sales statistics showed a pronounced increase in the use of fusidic acid ointments in the 0-12 y age group from 1998 onwards. There was, however, no statistically significant correlation between sales of fusidic acid ointments and resistance among S. aureus strains to fusidic acid.