Ethnic disparities in access to health care and health outcomes are well documented. It is unclear whether similar differences exist between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people with chronic kidney disease in Canada. We determined whether access to care differed between status Aboriginal people (Aboriginal people registered under the federal Indian Act) and non-Aboriginal people with chronic kidney disease.
We identified 106 511 non-Aboriginal and 1182 Aboriginal patients with chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2)). We compared outcomes, including hospital admissions, that may have been preventable with appropriate outpatient care (ambulatory-care-sensitive conditions) as well as use of specialist services, including visits to nephrologists and general internists.
Aboriginal people were almost twice as likely as non-Aboriginal people to be admitted to hospital for an ambulatory-care-sensitive condition (rate ratio 1.77, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.46-2.13). Aboriginal people with severe chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate
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The aim of the study was to describe adherence to health regimens and the factors associated with it among adult frequent attenders (FAs).
This was a cross-sectional study. The study sample consisted of 462 healthcare FAs in 7 municipal health centres in northern Finland. An FA is a person who has had 8 or more outpatient visits to a GP (in a health centre) or 4 or more outpatient visits to a university hospital during 1 year. The main outcome was self-reported adherence to health regimens.
Of the FAs, 82% adhered well to their health regimens. Carrying out self-care, medical care and feeling responsible for self-care were the most significant predictors to good adherence in all models. No significant differences in adherence were found in male and female subjects, age groups or educational levels. Support from healthcare providers and support from relatives were not significant predictors of good adherence.
FAs in Finland adhere well to health regimens and exceptionally well to medication. Variables that predict the best adherence of FAs to health regimens are carrying out self-care, receiving medical care and feeling responsible for self-care.
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To assess the adoption of new endodontic technology in a population of Danish practitioners.
Members of the Copenhagen Dental Association (n = 1156) were approached with a questionnaire concerning the frequency of various endodontic procedures. Three options were available: often, occasionally and never. Responses were anonymous. The statistical analyses were performed as studies of association in two- or three-way contingency tables, and with Goodman-Kruskal's gamma-coefficient as the basic tool chosen.
Only data from general practitioners (GPs) in private practice were analysed (n = 956). The response rate was 72%. NiTi hand instruments were often used to negotiate canals by 18%, whilst 10% often used NiTi rotary systems. Electronic apex locators were often employed by 15%. Nineteen per cent reported that warm gutta-percha was often used. A majority (53%) often spend two sessions to instrument a molar, and 20% often needed three or more sessions to finish the shaping phase. To complete a treatment of a nonvital case most practitioners reported to use at least three appointments. Only 4% frequently applied rubber dam.
The adoption of new endodontic technology is at an early stage amongst Danish GPs. A new revised remuneration system might influence the rate of adoption, allowing the practitioners to act more rationally and produce a higher frequency of good-quality root fillings. Progress towards high quality endodontics might be hindered by the nonuse of rubber dam.
The influenza immunization program in North America has been primarily designed to provide direct benefit to vaccinated individuals at highest risk of serious influenza outcomes. Some evidence suggests that immunization of certain age groups may also extend indirect protective benefit to vulnerable populations. Our goal was to identify age groups associated earliest with seasonal influenza activity and who may have the greatest indirect impact at the population level. We examined age-based associations between influenza medical visits and population-wide hospitalization/mortality due to pneumonia & influenza (P&I) using administrative datasets in British Columbia, Canada. A peak week was identified for each age group based on the highest rates observed in a given week for that study year. Mean rates at the peak week were averaged over the study years per age group. Timeliness (T) was defined as the mean difference in days between the first peak in influenza medical visits and population-wide P&I hospitalizations/deaths. Poisson regression was applied to calculate prediction (Pr) as the average proportion of deviance in P&I explained by influenza medical visits. T and Pr were derived by age group, and the product (T x Pr) was used as a summary measure to rank potential indirect effects of influenza by age group. Young children (0-23 months) and the elderly (> or = 65 years) had the highest peak rates of P&I hospitalization. Children
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Air pollution can increase the symptoms of asthma and has an acute effect on the number of emergency room visits and hospital admissions because of asthma, but little is known about the effect of air pollution on the number of primary health care (PHC) visits for asthma.
To investigate the association between air pollution and the number of PHC visits for asthma in Scania, southern Sweden.
Data on daily PHC visits for asthma were obtained from a regional healthcare database in Scania, which covers approximately half a million people. Air pollution data from 2005 to 2010 were obtained from six urban background stations. We used a case-crossover study design and a distributed lag non-linear model in the analysis.
The air pollution levels were generally within the EU air quality guidelines. The mean number of daily PHC visits for asthma was 34. The number of PHC visits increased by 5% (95% confidence interval (CI): 3.91-6.25%) with every 10µg m(-3) increase in daily mean NO2 lag (0-15), suggesting that daily air pollution levels are associated with PHC visits for asthma.
Even though the air quality in Scania between 2005 and 2010 was within EU's guidelines, the number of PHC visits for asthma increased with increasing levels of air pollution. This suggests that as well as increasing hospital and emergency room visits, air pollution increases the burden on PHC due to milder symptoms of asthma.
To examine patterns of ambulatory physician visits for musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) in Canada.
Physician claims data from 7 provinces were analyzed for ambulatory visits made by adults age >or= 15 years to primary care physicians and specialists (all medical specialists, rheumatologists, internists, all surgical specialists, orthopedic surgeons) for MSD (arthritis and related conditions, bone disorders, back disorders, ill defined symptoms) during fiscal year 1998-99. Person-visit rates and total and mean number of visits to all physicians for MSD were calculated by condition group. The percentages of patients with MSD seeing physicians of different specialties were also calculated. Provincial data were combined to calculate national estimates.
Over 15.5 million physician visits were made for MSD during 1998-99. About 24% of Canadians made at least one physician visit for MSD: 16% for arthritis and related conditions, 2% for bone disorders, 7% for back disorders, and 6% for ill defined symptoms. Person-visit rates for MSD varied by province, were highest among older Canadians, and were greater for women than men. Primary care physicians were commonly seen, particularly for back disorders. Consultation with surgical and medical specialists was less common and varied by province and by condition.
MSD place a significant burden on Canada's ambulatory healthcare system. As the population ages, there will be an escalating demand for care. Careful planning will be required to ensure that those affected have access to the care they require. A limitation in using administrative data to examine health service utilization is that MSD diagnostic codes require validation.
Long-term health care planning is presently not based on the needs of the population at the local level in Finland but rather, it is based on retroactive economic values and already realised budget in hospital and primary health care. The existing health care structure and its health care practices continue to guide the supply of services. While we have the most extensive databases on primary health care and hospital services, such tools are not used in the broadest possible sense in the present health care planning at the local level. Simple and informative indicators available to health care planners and decision-makers from databases at the local level were used to appraise the use of health care services. Statistical profiles of health care clients were classified by age groups within the health authority area (population of 13,000) of Paimio-Sauvo in south-western Finland with the intent to explain utilisation of primary health care services, their coverage, and repeat visits as well as groups not using those services. Physicians recorded reasons for each patient visit with the ICD-10 categories. In the case municipalities, primary health care services provided 100% coverage to children of 0-6 years of age and more than 70% coverage to other groups. Most primary health care expenditures were assessed for people 65 years or older in 2000. As an example of a municipality, hospital and primary health care expenditures within Paimio varied from 24 to 30.4% of the total obligations for the last 10 years.
The present-day system for assessment of the activities of dental clinics does not reflect their efficacy, for it does not take into consideration the population disease incidence and changes in this parameter. The author suggests that the incidence of dental diseases be assessed from the records of consultations at health institutions, as exemplified by a random sample of 2515 primary consultations at dental clinics. The cause of the consultation was classified in accordance with the International Disease Classification, 9th Revision. The author claims that such mode of assessment of the physicians' and clinics' work efficacy, will improve the quality of the diagnosis.
One-hundred and three breast cancer patients were questioned. As few as 35% of them had been regularly checked-up. 52% of patients took medical advice immediately after tumor detection. In 25% of patients, the period between the first examination and referral to a hospital was longer than 1 month whereas 59.2% of patients waited for 1 month to be hospitalized. Inadequate and prolonged examination and malpractice accounted for delayed diagnosis of breast cancer in 64.2%.
The objective of this study is to describe patients who had treatment for hypersensitivity illnesses by general practitioners (GPs) or classical homeopaths (CHs) and the patients' self-reported effectiveness of the treatment received. The data stems from an exploratory retrospective study amongst 88 Danish patients (response rate 58%) suffering from hypersensitivity illnesses, who chose treatment from one of six GPs or one of 10 CHs who participated in the project. The patients themselves selected their treatment. The GPs or the CHs considered that the patient's treatment was complete or that the patient was in a situation of current 'maintenance treatment'. The patients' primary reason for consulting the GP or the CH was that they were suffering from hypersensitivity illnesses. No significant difference was found between the two groups of patients in relation to age, education and duration of hypersensitivity symptoms. The CH patients were more likely to be employed in teaching, research, health care or the social sector compared to GP patients. The two groups of patients were similar in respect of their health at the start of the treatment, 57% of the patients who consulted a CH experienced an improvement of their state of health compared to 24% of the GP patients. Both groups of patients experienced an improvement of their psychological health after treatment. Logistic regression analysis showed that the GP or CH was the only significant effect variable. The results are based on the patients' retrospective, self-reported effectiveness of the treatments.