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Abdominal Adiposity Distribution Quantified by Ultrasound Imaging and Incident Hypertension in a General Population.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature284958
Source
Hypertension. 2016 Nov;68(5):1115-1122
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2016
Author
Ekim Seven
Betina H Thuesen
Allan Linneberg
Jørgen L Jeppesen
Source
Hypertension. 2016 Nov;68(5):1115-1122
Date
Nov-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Blood Pressure Determination
Body mass index
Cross-Sectional Studies
Denmark
Female
Humans
Hypertension - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology
Incidence
Intra-Abdominal Fat - diagnostic imaging - physiopathology
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Multivariate Analysis
Obesity, Abdominal - complications - diagnostic imaging
Odds Ratio
Prognosis
Prospective Studies
Risk assessment
Severity of Illness Index
Subcutaneous Fat - diagnostic imaging - physiopathology
Ultrasonography, Doppler - methods
Abstract
Abdominal obesity is a major risk factor for hypertension. However, different distributions of abdominal adipose tissue may affect hypertension risk differently. The main purpose of this study was to explore the association of subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) with incident hypertension in a population-based setting. We hypothesized that VAT, rather than SAT, would be associated with incident hypertension. VAT and SAT were determined by ultrasound imagining in 3363 randomly selected Danes (mean age 49 years, 56% women, mean body mass index 25.8 kg/m(2)). We constructed multiple logistic regression models to compute standardized odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals per SD increase in SAT and VAT. Of the 2119 normotensive participants at baseline, 1432, with mean SAT of 2.8 cm and mean VAT of 5.7 cm, returned 5 years later for a follow-up examination and among them 203 had developed hypertension. In models including both VAT and SAT, the Framingham Hypertension Risk Score variables (age, sex, smoking status, family history of hypertension, and baseline blood pressure) and glycated hemoglobin, odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for incident hypertension for 1 SD increase in VAT and SAT was 1.27 (1.08-1.50, P=0.004) and 0.97 (0.81-1.15, P=0.70), respectively. Adjusting for body mass index instead of SAT attenuated the association between VAT and incident hypertension, but it was still significant (odds ratio, 1.22 [1.01-1.48, P=0.041] for each SD increase in VAT). In conclusion, ultrasound-determined VAT, but not SAT, was associated with incident hypertension in a random sample of Danish adults.
PubMed ID
27620395 View in PubMed
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Abdominal aortic diameter is increased in males with a family history of abdominal aortic aneurysms: results from the Danish VIVA-trial.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature260407
Source
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2014 Dec;48(6):669-75
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2014
Author
T M M Joergensen
K. Houlind
A. Green
J S Lindholt
Source
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2014 Dec;48(6):669-75
Date
Dec-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aorta, Abdominal - ultrasonography
Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal - epidemiology - genetics - ultrasonography
Chi-Square Distribution
Cross-Sectional Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Dilatation, Pathologic
Female
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Heredity
Humans
Linear Models
Male
Multivariate Analysis
Odds Ratio
Pedigree
Phenotype
Predictive value of tests
Prevalence
Questionnaires
Registries
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Time Factors
Abstract
To investigate, at a population level, whether a family history of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is independently related to increased aortic diameter and prevalence of AAA in men, and to elucidate whether the mean aortic diameter and the prevalence of AAA are different between participants with male and female relatives with AAA.
Observational population-based cross-sectional study.
18,614 male participants screened for AAA in the VIVA-trial 2008-2011 with information on both family history of AAA and maximal aortic diameter.
Standardized ultrasound scan measurement of maximum antero-posterior aortic diameter. Family history obtained by questionnaire. Multivariate regression analysis was used to test for confounders: age, sex, smoking, comorbidity and medication.
From the screened cohort, 569 participants had at least one first degree relative diagnosed with AAA, and 38 had AAA. Participants with a family history of AAA (+FH) had a significantly larger mean maximum aortic diameter (20.50 mm) compared with participants without family history of AAA (-FH) (19.07 mm, p
PubMed ID
25443525 View in PubMed
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Abuse and neglect of older persons in seven cities in seven countries in Europe: a cross-sectional community study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature121931
Source
Int J Public Health. 2013 Feb;58(1):121-32
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2013
Author
Jutta Lindert
Juan de Luna
Francisco Torres-Gonzales
Henrique Barros
Elisabeth Ioannidi-Kopolou
Maria Gabriella Melchiorre
Mindaugas Stankunas
Gloria Macassa
Joaquim F J Soares
Author Affiliation
Protestant University of Applied Sciences Ludwigsburg, Ludwigsburg, Germany. mail@jlindert.de
Source
Int J Public Health. 2013 Feb;58(1):121-32
Date
Feb-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Cross-Sectional Studies
Elder Abuse - economics - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Emigrants and Immigrants - classification
Female
Germany
Greece
Humans
Italy
Lithuania
Logistic Models
Male
Marital status
Middle Aged
Odds Ratio
Portugal
Prevalence
Residence Characteristics
Sex Factors
Social Class
Spain
Sweden
Abstract
We aimed to investigate the prevalence rate of abuse (psychological, physical, sexual, financial, neglect) of older persons (AO) in seven cities from seven countries in Europe (Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, Spain, Sweden), and to assess factors potentially associated with AO.
A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2009 (n = 4,467, aged 60-84). Potentially associated factors were grouped into domains (domain 1: age, gender, migration history; domain 2: education, occupation; domain 3: marital status, living situation; domain 4: habitation, income, financial strain). We calculated odds ratios (OR) with their respective 95 % confidence intervals (CI).
Psychological AO was the most common form of AO, ranging from 10.4 % (95 % CI 8.1-13.0) in Italy to 29.7 % (95 % CI 26.2-33.5) in Sweden. Second most common form was financial AO, ranging from 1.8 % (95 % CI 0.9-3.2) in Sweden to 7.8 % (95 % CI 5.8-10.1) in Portugal. Less common was physical AO, ranging from 1.0 % (95 % CI 0.4-2.1) in Italy to 4.0 % (95 % CI 2.6-5.8 %) in Sweden. Sexual AO was least common, ranging from 0.3 (95 % CI 0.0-1.1) in Italy and Spain to 1.5 % (95 % CI 0.7-2.8) in Greece. Being from Germany (AOR 3.25, 95 % CI 2.34-4.51), Sweden (OR 3.16, 95 % CI 2.28-4.39) or Lithuania (AOR 2.45, 95 % CI 1.75-3.43) was associated with increased prevalence rates of AO.
Country of residence of older people is independent from the four assessed domains associated with AO. Life course perspectives on AO are highly needed to get better insight, and to develop and implement prevention strategies targeted at decreasing prevalence rates of AO.
PubMed ID
22864651 View in PubMed
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ACE gene polymorphism as a risk factor for ischemic cerebrovascular disease.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature48152
Source
Ann Intern Med. 1997 Sep 1;127(5):346-55
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1-1997
Author
B. Agerholm-Larsen
A. Tybjaerg-Hansen
R. Frikke-Schmidt
M L Grønholdt
G. Jensen
B G Nordestgaard
Author Affiliation
Herlev University Hospital, Denmark.
Source
Ann Intern Med. 1997 Sep 1;127(5):346-55
Date
Sep-1-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alleles
Brain Ischemia - enzymology - genetics
Cross-Sectional Studies
Denmark
Female
Genotype
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Mutation
Odds Ratio
Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A - genetics
Polymorphism, Genetic
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk
Risk factors
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Researchers have suggested that the deletional allele of the ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) gene insertion-deletion polymorphism is a potent risk factor for myocardial infarction. This association could not be confirmed in the Copenhagen City Heart Study, in which 10,150 persons were studied. The ACE gene polymorphism has also recently been suggested as a potent risk factor for ischemic cerebrovascular disease. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between ACE gene polymorphism and ischemic cerebrovascular disease. DESIGN: Two case-referent studies and a cross-sectional study. SETTING: University hospital in Copenhagen, Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: Case-referent study 1: 35 women and 38 men who developed ischemic cerebrovascular disease before 50 years of age compared with 1454 women and 1737 men from a general population sample. Case-referent study 2: 82 women and 137 men with ischemic cerebrovascular disease and carotid stenosis greater than 40% compared with 4273 women and 3091 men from the general population sample. Cross-sectional study of the general population sample: 67 women and 93 men with ischemic cerebrovascular disease compared with 4077 women and 3156 men without such disease. MEASUREMENTS: Genotype; age; body mass index; smoking habits; levels of lipids, lipoproteins, apolipoproteins, and fibrinogen; and diagnosis of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and ischemic cerebrovascular disease. RESULTS: Odds ratios for ischemic cerebrovascular disease by ACE genotype classes were not significantly different from 1.0 in women or men in any of the three studies, separately or combined. In a logistic regression analysis that controlled for age and conventional cardiovascular risk factors, odds ratios in either sex still did not significantly differ from 1.0 in any study, separately or combined. CONCLUSION: In two case-referent studies, a cross-sectional study, and the three studies combined, no statistically significant difference was found in the development of ischemic cerebrovascular disease between genotype classes of the ACE gene polymorphism in women or men.
PubMed ID
9273825 View in PubMed
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The adequacy of prenatal care and incidence of low birthweight among the poor in Washington State and British Columbia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature218009
Source
Am J Public Health. 1994 Jun;84(6):986-91
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1994
Author
S J Katz
R W Armstrong
J P LoGerfo
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
Source
Am J Public Health. 1994 Jun;84(6):986-91
Date
Jun-1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
British Columbia - epidemiology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Humans
Infant, Low Birth Weight
Infant, Newborn
Maternal Age
Medicaid
National Health Programs
Odds Ratio
Parity
Poverty
Prenatal Care
Quality of Health Care
Risk factors
United States
Washington - epidemiology
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to examine differences in adequacy of prenatal care and incidence of low birthweight between low-income women with Medicaid in Washington State and low-income women with Canadian provincial health insurance in British Columbia.
A population-based cross-sectional study was done by using linked birth certificates and claims data.
Overall, the adjusted odds ratio for inadequate prenatal care in Washington (comparing women with Medicaid with those with private insurance) was 3.2. However, the risk varied by time of Medicaid enrollment relative to pregnancy (2.0, 1.0, 2.7, 6.3; for women who enrolled prior to pregnancy, during the first trimester, during the second trimester, or during the third trimester, respectively). In British Columbia, the adjusted odds ratio for inadequate care (comparing women receiving a health premium subsidy with those receiving no subsidy) was 1.5 for women receiving a 100% subsidy and 1.2 for women receiving a 95% subsidy. The risk for low birthweight followed a similar trend in both regions, but there was no association with enrollment period in Washington.
Overall, the risk for inadequate prenatal care among poor women was much greater in Washington than in British Columbia. Most of the difference was due to Washington women's delayed enrollment in Medicaid. In both regions, the poor were at similar risk for low birthweight relative to their more affluent counterparts.
Notes
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PubMed ID
8203697 View in PubMed
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Adherence to guidelines for avoiding drug interactions associated with warfarin--a Nationwide Swedish Register Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature260076
Source
PLoS One. 2014;9(5):e97388
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Jonatan D Lindh
Marine L Andersson
Buster Mannheimer
Source
PLoS One. 2014;9(5):e97388
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal - administration & dosage
Cross-Sectional Studies
Drug Interactions
Guideline Adherence
Humans
Middle Aged
Odds Ratio
Registries
Retrospective Studies
Sulfamethoxazole - administration & dosage
Sweden
Tramadol - administration & dosage
Warfarin - administration & dosage - adverse effects
Abstract
To investigate the extent to which clinicians avoid well-established drug-drug interactions associated with warfarin. We hypothesised that clinicians would avoid combining non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), tramadol and sulfamethoxazole with warfarin.
A cross-sectional analysis of nationwide dispensing data was performed in Swedish individuals 18 years or older (n?=? 7,563,649). Odds ratios of interacting NSAIDs, tramadol and sulfamethoxazole versus respective prevalence of comparator drugs codeine, and ciprofloxacin in patients co-dispensed interacting warfarin versus patients unexposed was calculated.
The odds of receiving an interacting NSAID versus the comparator codeine was markedly lower in patients with warfarin than in the remaining population (adjusted OR 0.21; 95% CI 0.20 - 0.22). Also, the interacting drugs tramadol and sulfamethoxazole were less common among patients dispensed warfarin as compared to the remaining population, although the decrease was much more modest (adjusted OR 0.83; CI 0.80-0.87 and 0.81; CI 0.73 - 0.90).
In conclusion, Swedish doctors in the vast majority of cases refrain from prescribing NSAIDs to patients already on warfarin. Tramadol and sulfamethoxazole are however rarely avoided.
Notes
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PubMed ID
24830709 View in PubMed
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Adherence to physical activity recommendations and the influence of socio-demographic correlates - a population-based cross-sectional study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature91546
Source
BMC Public Health. 2008;8:367
Publication Type
Article
Date
2008
Author
Bergman Patrick
Grjibovski Andrej M
Hagströmer Maria
Bauman Adrian
Sjöström Michael
Author Affiliation
Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, 141 57 Huddinge, Sweden. patrick.bergman@ki.se
Source
BMC Public Health. 2008;8:367
Date
2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Cross-Sectional Studies
Exercise
Female
Humans
Leisure Activities
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Motivation
Odds Ratio
Social Class
Sweden
Young Adult
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Current physical activity guidelines acknowledge the importance of total health enhancing physical activity (HEPA) compared to leisure time physical activity or exercise alone. Assessing total HEPA may result in different levels of adherence to these as well as the strength and/or direction of associations observed between total HEPA and socio-demographic correlates. The aim of this study was to estimate the proportion of the population adhering to the recommendation of at least 30 minutes of HEPA on most days, and to examine the influences of socio-demographic correlates on reaching this recommendation. METHODS: Swedish adults aged 18-74 years (n = 1470) were categorized, based on population data obtained using the IPAQ, into low, moderately and highly physically active categories. Independent associations between the physical activity categories and socio-demographic correlates were studied using a multinomial logistic regression. RESULTS: Of the subjects, 63% (95% CI: 60.5-65.4) adhered to the HEPA recommendation. Most likely to reach the highly physical active category were those aged
PubMed ID
18945354 View in PubMed
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Adolescent occasional smokers, a target group for smoking cessation? the Nord-Tr√łndelag Health Study, Norway, 1995-1997.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature67449
Source
Prev Med. 2000 Dec;31(6):682-90
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2000
Author
T L Holmen
E. Barrett-Connor
J. Holmen
L. Bjermer
Author Affiliation
National Institute of Public Health, Community Medicine Research Unit, Verdal, Norway. verdalfh@online.no
Source
Prev Med. 2000 Dec;31(6):682-90
Date
Dec-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior
Chi-Square Distribution
Comparative Study
Cross-Sectional Studies
Data Collection
Female
Humans
Incidence
Logistic Models
Male
Norway - epidemiology
Odds Ratio
Probability
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk assessment
Sex Distribution
Smoking - adverse effects - trends
Smoking Cessation - methods
Time Factors
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Adolescent smokers are often unsuccessful in quitting and difficult to retain in cessation programs. In health promotion, focusing on the right target groups is essential. Aim. The aim was to examine if adolescent occasional smokers differ from daily smokers, and if possible differences could be useful for targeted smoking cessation programs. METHODS: Ninety-one percent of all teenagers attending junior high or high schools participated in a cross-sectional study, conducted in Nord-Trøndelag County, Norway, 1995-1997, including 8,460 students 13-18 years old. Information on smoking habits, education, after school activities, and parents was obtained by self-administered questionnaires. RESULTS: Fifty-four percent of boys and 57% of girls had tried at least one cigarette. Of these, 36% of boys and 41% of girls were current smokers, half of whom reported occasional smoking. Students who had quit smoking had more often been occasional than daily smokers. Compared to daily smokers, occasional smokers participated in higher academic courses, were more engaged in organized activities and sports, had been drunk less often, and had better family role models. CONCLUSION: Differences support potential utility of focusing on occasional smokers as a special target group in smoking cessation programs.
PubMed ID
11133335 View in PubMed
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Adolescents alcohol-use and economic conditions: a multilevel analysis of data from a period with big economic changes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature146664
Source
Eur J Health Econ. 2010 Dec;11(6):533-41
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2010
Author
Mikael Svensson
Curt Hagquist
Author Affiliation
Department of Economics, Swedish Business School, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden. mikael.svensson@oru.se
Source
Eur J Health Econ. 2010 Dec;11(6):533-41
Date
Dec-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Age Factors
Alcohol Drinking - economics - epidemiology
Alcoholism - economics - epidemiology
Confidence Intervals
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Health Surveys
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Multivariate Analysis
Odds Ratio
Questionnaires
Regression Analysis
Risk factors
Stress, Psychological - economics
Sweden
Time Factors
Unemployment - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Young Adult
Abstract
This paper examines how the unemployment rate is related to adolescent alcohol use and experience of binge drinking during a time period characterized by big societal changes. The paper uses repeated cross-sectional adolescent survey data from a Swedish region, collected in 1988, 1991, 1995, 1998, 2002 and 2005, and merges this with data on local unemployment rates for the same time periods. Individual level frequency of alcohol use as well as experience of binge drinking is connected to local level unemployment rate to estimate the relationship using multilevel modeling. The model includes municipality effects controlling for time-invariant differences between municipalities as well as year fixed effects controlling for municipality-invariant changes over time in alcohol use. The results show that the unemployment rate is negatively associated with adolescents' alcohol use and the experience of binge drinking. When the unemployment rate increases, more adolescents do not drink at all. Regular drinking (twice per month or more) is, on the other hand, unrelated to the unemployment rate. Examining gender-differences in the relationship, it is shown that the results are driven by behavior in girls, whereas drinking among boys does not show any significant relationship with changes in the unemployment rate.
PubMed ID
20012126 View in PubMed
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Adult-onset asthma and occupational exposures.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature15626
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 1999 Oct;25(5):430-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-1999
Author
K. Torén
B. Järvholm
J. Brisman
S. Hagberg
B A Hermansson
L. Lillienberg
Author Affiliation
Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden. Kjell.Toren@ymk.gu.se
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 1999 Oct;25(5):430-5
Date
Oct-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Distribution
Age of Onset
Air Pollutants, Occupational - adverse effects - classification
Asthma - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology
Comparative Study
Confidence Intervals
Cross-Sectional Studies
Dust - adverse effects - analysis
Female
Humans
Incidence
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Odds Ratio
Population Surveillance
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Retrospective Studies
Risk factors
Sampling Studies
Sex Distribution
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: This study examined certain occupational exposures and the risk for adult-onset asthma. METHODS: A nested case-referent study of adult-onset asthma was performed on a random population sample (N=15813), aged 21 to 51 years. Cases for the study included 2 groups: subjects reporting "physician-diagnosed" asthma (N=251) and a broader "asthma" group (N=362). The "asthma" group consisted of subjects with "physician-diagnosed" asthma (N=251) and subjects reporting asthma-like symptoms without having "physician-diagnosed" asthma (N=111). The referents (N=2044) were randomly selected from the whole population sample. The case-referent sample was investigated with a comprehensive questionnaire about occupational exposures, asthma, respiratory symptoms, smoking, and atopy. Odds ratios were calculated with stratification for gender, year of diagnosis, and birth year. RESULTS: The highest odds ratio for "physician-diagnosed" asthma was associated with exposure to flour dust [odds ratio (OR) 2.8, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.5-5.2] and the occupational handling of resin-based paints (isocyanates) (OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.6-5.9). Exposure to welding fumes, textile dust, and work with glues containing acrylates was also associated with an increased odds ratio for "physician-diagnosed" asthma. Including persons with asthma-like symptoms (ie, the asthma group) showed similar results. CONCLUSION: This population-based case-referent study from Sweden indicates that occupational exposure to acrylate-based compounds and welding fumes is associated with increased risk for adult-onset asthma.
PubMed ID
10569463 View in PubMed
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742 records – page 1 of 75.