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421 records – page 1 of 43.

35 years of marine natural product research in Sweden: Cool molecules and models from cold waters.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature283493
Source
Prog Mol Subcell Biol. 2017;55:1-34
Publication Type
Article
Date
2017
Author
Lars Bohlin
Paco Cárdenas
Anders Backlund
Ulf Göransson
Source
Prog Mol Subcell Biol. 2017;55:1-34
Date
2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Aquatic Organisms - chemistry - genetics
Biological Products - chemistry - therapeutic use
Biomedical Research - trends
Cold Temperature
Marine Biology - trends
Oceans and Seas
Porifera - chemistry - genetics
Sweden
Technology, Pharmaceutical - trends
Abstract
Currents efforts in marine biodiscovery have essentially focused on temperate to tropical shallow water organisms. With more than 6000 species of marine plants and animals, the Kosterfjord area has the richest marine biodiversity in Swedish waters, but it remains understudied. The overall objective of our marine pharmacognosy research is to explore and reveal the pharmacological potential of organisms from this poorly explored region. More generally, we wish to understand aspects of structure-activity relationships of chemical interactions in cold-water marine environment (shallow and deep). Our strategy is based on ecologically guided search for compounds through studies of physiology and organism interactions coupled to identification of bioactive molecules guided by especially in vivo assays. The research programme originated in the beginning of the 1980s with a broad screening of Swedish marine organisms using both in vitro and in vivo assays, resulting in isolation and identification of several different bioactive molecules. Two congenerous cyclopeptides, i.e. barettin and 8,9-dihydrobarettin, were isolated from the deep-sea sponge Geodia barretti, and structurally elucidated, guided by their antifouling activity and their affinity to a selection of human serotonin receptors. To optimize the activity a number of analogues of barettin were synthezised and tested for antifouling activity. Within the EU project BlueGenics, two larger homologous peptides, barrettides A and B, were isolated from G. baretti. Also, metabolic fingerprinting combined with sponge systematics was used to further study deep-sea natural product diversity in the genus Geodia. Finally, the chemical property space model 'ChemGPS-NP' has been developed and used in our research group, enabling a more efficient use of obtained compounds and exploration of possible biological activities and targets. Another approach is the broad application of phylogenetic frameworks, which can be used in prediction of where-in which organisms-to search for novel molecules or better sources of known molecules in marine organisms. In a further perspective, the deeper understanding of evolution and development of life on Earth can also provide answers to why marine organisms produce specific molecules.
PubMed ID
28238034 View in PubMed
Less detail

129I in the oceans: origins and applications.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature6779
Source
Sci Total Environ. 1999 Sep 30;237-238:31-41
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-30-1999
Author
G M Raisbeck
F. Yiou
Author Affiliation
Centre de Spectrométrie Nucléaire et de Spectrométrie de Masse, IN2P3-CNRS, Orsay, France. raisbeck@csnsm.in2p3.fr
Source
Sci Total Environ. 1999 Sep 30;237-238:31-41
Date
Sep-30-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Environmental Monitoring - methods
France
Great Britain
Iodine - analysis
Iodine Radioisotopes - analysis
Oceans and Seas
Radioactive Tracers
Radioactive Waste - statistics & numerical data
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Technetium - analysis
Water Pollutants, Radioactive - analysis
Water Pollution, Radioactive - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
The quantity of the long lived (half-life 15.7 million years) radioactive isotope 129I in the pre-nuclear age ocean was approximately 100 kg. Various nuclear related activities, including weapons testing, nuclear fuel reprocessing, Chernobyl and other authorized or non-authorized dumping of radioactive waste have increased the ocean inventory of 129I by more than one order of magnitude. The most important of these sources are the direct marine discharges from the commercial reprocessing facilities at La Hague (France) and Sellafield (UK) which have discharged approximately 1640 kg in the English Channel, and approximately 720 kg in the Irish Sea, respectively. We discuss how this 129I can be used as both a 'pathway' and 'transit time' tracer in the North Atlantic and Arctic oceans, as well as a parameter for distinguishing between reprocessed and non-reprocessed nuclear waste in the ocean, and as a proxy for the transport and dilution of other soluble pollutants input to the North Sea.
PubMed ID
10568263 View in PubMed
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[About the possibility to detect the fact of corpse transportation from the sea coastline with the subsequent burial].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature263372
Source
Sud Med Ekspert. 2015 Jan-Feb;58(1):13-7
Publication Type
Article
Author
D Yu Ponomarev
A V Nikitaev
A M Kurch
Source
Sud Med Ekspert. 2015 Jan-Feb;58(1):13-7
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Bone and Bones - pathology
Burial
Cadaver
Drowning - pathology
Forensic Anthropology - methods
Humans
Oceans and Seas
Postmortem Changes
Russia
Seawater
Abstract
The objective of the present work was to detect and describe the new features characterizing the long-term stay of a corpse in seawater followed by its burial on earth. The bones of the skeletonized corpse were found to be covered with mussels and petrified sea worms that can serve as the indicators of staying the corps in seawater and its subsequent transportation from the sea coastline to the inland. These findings can be used to clarify the circumstances of death of the people found in the illegal burial places at the seacoast of maritime areas.
PubMed ID
25874312 View in PubMed
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[Abundance and activity of microorganisms at the water-sediment interface and their effect on the carbon isotopic composition of suspended organic matter and sediments of the Kara Sea].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature259299
Source
Mikrobiologiia. 2013 Nov-Dec;82(6):723-31
Publication Type
Article
Author
M V Ivanov
A Iu Lein
A S Savvichev
I I Rusanov
E F Veslopolova
E E Zakharova
T S Prusakova
Source
Mikrobiologiia. 2013 Nov-Dec;82(6):723-31
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Arctic Regions
Carbon Isotopes - analysis - metabolism
Methanobacteriales - metabolism
Methanomicrobiales - metabolism
Oceans and Seas
Russia
Water Microbiology
Abstract
At ten stations of the meridian profile in the eastern Kara Sea from the Yenisei estuary through the shallow shelf and further through the St. Anna trough, total microbial numbers (TMN) determined by direct counting, total activity of the microbial community determined by dark CO2 assimilation (DCA), and the carbon isotopic composition of organic matter in suspension and upper sediment horizons (d13C, per thousand) were investigated. Three horizons were studied in detail: (1) the near-bottom water layer (20-30 cm above the sediment); (2) the uppermost, strongly hydrated sediment horizon, further termed warp (5-10 mm); and (3) the upper sediment horizon (1-5 cm). Due to decrease in the amount of isotopically light carbon of terrigenous origin with increasing distance from the Yenisei estuary, the TMN and DCA values decreased, and the d13C changed gradually from -29.7 to -23.9 per thousand. At most stations, a noticeable decrease in TMN and DCA values with depth was observed in the water column, while the carbon isotopic composition of suspended organic matter did not change significantly. Considerable changes of all parameters were detected in the interface zone: TMN and DCA increased in the sediments compared to their values in near-bottom water, while the 13C content increased significantly, with d13C of organic matter in the sediments being at some stations 3.5- 4.0 per thousand higher than in the near-bottom water. Due to insufficient illumination in the near-bottom zone, newly formed isotopically heavy organic matter (d13C(-) -20 per thousand) could not be formed by photosynthesis, active growth of chemoautotrophic microorganisms in this zone is suggested, which may use reduced sulfur, nitrogen, and carbon compounds diffusing from anaerobic sediments. High DCA values for the interface zone samples confirm this hypothesis. Moreover, neutrophilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria were retrieved from the samples of this zone.
PubMed ID
25509411 View in PubMed
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Acoustically invisible feeding blue whales in Northern Icelandic waters.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature267088
Source
J Acoust Soc Am. 2014 Aug;136(2):939-44
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2014
Author
Tomonari Akamatsu
Marianne Helene Rasmussen
Maria Iversen
Source
J Acoust Soc Am. 2014 Aug;136(2):939-44
Date
Aug-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acoustics - instrumentation
Animals
Balaenoptera - physiology - psychology
Equipment Design
Feeding Behavior
Iceland
Oceans and Seas
Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted
Sound Spectrography
Time Factors
Transducers, Pressure
Vocalization, Animal
Abstract
Fixed passive acoustic monitoring can be used for long-term recording of vocalizing cetaceans. Both presence monitoring and animal density estimation requires the call rates and sound source levels of vocalizations produced by single animals. In this study, blue whale calls were recorded using acoustic bio-logging systems in Skjálfandi Bay off Húsavík, Northeast Iceland, in June 2012. An accelerometer was attached to individual whales to monitor diving behavior. During 21?h recording two individuals, 8?h 45?min and 13?h 2?min, respectively, 105 and 104 lunge feeding events and four calls were recorded. All recorded calls were down-sweep calls ranging from 105 to 48?Hz. The sound duration was 1-2?s. The source level was estimated to be between 158 and 169?dB re 1µPa rms, assuming spherical sound propagation from the possible sound source location to the tag. The observed sound production rates and source levels of individual blue whales during feeding were extremely small compared with those observed previously in breeding grounds. The feeding whales were nearly acoustically invisible. The function of calls during feeding remains unknown.
PubMed ID
25096128 View in PubMed
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Acoustic vector sensor beamforming reduces masking from underwater industrial noise during passive monitoring.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289559
Source
J Acoust Soc Am. 2016 04; 139(4):EL105
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
04-2016
Author
Aaron M Thode
Katherine H Kim
Robert G Norman
Susanna B Blackwell
Charles R Greene
Author Affiliation
Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, San Diego, California 92093-0205, USA athode@ucsd.edu.
Source
J Acoust Soc Am. 2016 04; 139(4):EL105
Date
04-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Acoustics - instrumentation
Animals
Environmental Monitoring - instrumentation - methods
Equipment Design
Models, Theoretical
Motion
Noise - adverse effects
Oceans and Seas
Oil and Gas Industry
Pressure
Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted
Signal-To-Noise Ratio
Sound Spectrography
Time Factors
Transducers, Pressure
Vocalization, Animal
Water
Abstract
Masking from industrial noise can hamper the ability to detect marine mammal sounds near industrial operations, whenever conventional (pressure sensor) hydrophones are used for passive acoustic monitoring. Using data collected from an autonomous recorder with directional capabilities (Directional Autonomous Seafloor Acoustic Recorder), deployed 4.1?km from an arctic drilling site in 2012, the authors demonstrate how conventional beamforming on an acoustic vector sensor can be used to suppress noise arriving from a narrow sector of geographic azimuths. Improvements in signal-to-noise ratio of up to 15?dB are demonstrated on bowhead whale calls, which were otherwise undetectable using conventional hydrophones.
PubMed ID
27106345 View in PubMed
Less detail

Acoustic vector sensor beamforming reduces masking from underwater industrial noise during passive monitoring.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289717
Source
J Acoust Soc Am. 2016 04; 139(4):EL105
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
04-2016
Author
Aaron M Thode
Katherine H Kim
Robert G Norman
Susanna B Blackwell
Charles R Greene
Author Affiliation
Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, San Diego, California 92093-0205, USA athode@ucsd.edu.
Source
J Acoust Soc Am. 2016 04; 139(4):EL105
Date
04-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Acoustics - instrumentation
Animals
Environmental Monitoring - instrumentation - methods
Equipment Design
Models, Theoretical
Motion
Noise - adverse effects
Oceans and Seas
Oil and Gas Industry
Pressure
Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted
Signal-To-Noise Ratio
Sound Spectrography
Time Factors
Transducers, Pressure
Vocalization, Animal
Water
Abstract
Masking from industrial noise can hamper the ability to detect marine mammal sounds near industrial operations, whenever conventional (pressure sensor) hydrophones are used for passive acoustic monitoring. Using data collected from an autonomous recorder with directional capabilities (Directional Autonomous Seafloor Acoustic Recorder), deployed 4.1?km from an arctic drilling site in 2012, the authors demonstrate how conventional beamforming on an acoustic vector sensor can be used to suppress noise arriving from a narrow sector of geographic azimuths. Improvements in signal-to-noise ratio of up to 15?dB are demonstrated on bowhead whale calls, which were otherwise undetectable using conventional hydrophones.
PubMed ID
27106345 View in PubMed
Less detail

Acute and sub-lethal response to mercury in Arctic and boreal calanoid copepods.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature257349
Source
Aquat Toxicol. 2014 Oct;155:160-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2014
Author
Ida Beathe Overjordet
Dag Altin
Torunn Berg
Bjørn Munro Jenssen
Geir Wing Gabrielsen
Bjørn Henrik Hansen
Author Affiliation
Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Biology, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway; SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, Environmental Technology, N-7465 Trondheim, Norway. Electronic address: ida.beathe.overjordet@sintef.no.
Source
Aquat Toxicol. 2014 Oct;155:160-5
Date
Oct-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Arctic Regions
Copepoda - drug effects
Lethal Dose 50
Mercury - toxicity
Oceans and Seas
Temperature
Water Pollutants, Chemical - toxicity
Abstract
Acute lethal toxicity, expressed as LC50 values, is a widely used parameter in risk assessment of chemicals, and has been proposed as a tool to assess differences in species sensitivities to chemicals between climatic regions. Arctic Calanus glacialis and boreal Calanus finmarchicus were exposed to mercury (Hg(2+)) under natural environmental conditions including sea temperatures of 2° and 10°C, respectively. Acute lethal toxicity (96 h LC50) and sub-lethal molecular response (GST expression; in this article gene expression is used as a synonym of gene transcription, although it is acknowledged that gene expression is also regulated, e.g., at translation and protein stability level) were studied. The acute lethal toxicity was monitored for 96 h using seven different Hg concentrations. The sub-lethal experiment was set up on the basis of nominal LC50 values for each species using concentrations equivalent to 50, 5 and 0.5% of their 96 h LC50 value. No significant differences were found in acute lethal toxicity between the two species. The sub-lethal molecular response revealed large differences both in response time and the fold induction of GST, where the Arctic species responded both faster and with higher mRNA levels of GST after 48 h exposure. Under the natural exposure conditions applied in the present study, the Arctic species C. glacialis may potentially be more susceptible to mercury exposure on the sub-lethal level.
PubMed ID
25036619 View in PubMed
Less detail

Acute phase protein haptoglobin in blood plasma samples of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) of the Wadden Sea and of the isle Helgoland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature98848
Source
Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2010 Jan;155(1):67-71
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2010
Author
A. Kakuschke
H-B Erbsloeh
S. Griesel
A. Prange
Author Affiliation
GKSS Research Centre, Institute for Coastal Research, Max-Planck-Strasse 1, 21502 Geesthacht, Germany. antjekakuschke@web.de
Source
Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2010 Jan;155(1):67-71
Date
Jan-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute-Phase Proteins - metabolism
Age Factors
Animals
Denmark
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Female
Geography
Germany
Haptoglobins - metabolism
Male
Marine Biology - methods
Oceans and Seas
Phoca - blood
Seasons
Sex Factors
Time Factors
Abstract
Haptoglobin (Hp) which is synthesized in response to infection, inflammation, trauma or toxicological damage is known as a major acute phase protein in numerous species. Quantification of the circulating concentration of this protein can provide an objective measure of the health status, but there is a lack of investigations on harbour seals. We investigated the Hp concentration in samples of 123 seals (Phoca vitulina) from the German and Danish Wadden Sea to study physiological ranges of Hp levels. Hp levels between 2002, the end of the phocine distemper virus epidemic (PDV), and 2007 were considered, and Hp concentrations between animals of different sex, ages as well as living areas were compared. Furthermore, as a case study, six animals from the open sea isle Helgoland were investigated in 2006. Influences on the health status of the seal population e.g. the PDV epidemic were reflected by increased Hp levels in North Sea seals in 2002. The results of the Wadden Sea seals showed no significant age-, sex-, or geographical area-related differences. Interestingly, for the seals of the open sea isle Helgoland higher Hp values were measured compared to the Wadden Sea seals. The present study demonstrates that Hp can be used as a diagnostic tool to monitor the health status of harbour seals.
PubMed ID
19818410 View in PubMed
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[Age-related changes in the physical development of Kabardin-Balkarian school-children living at various heights above sea level].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature163334
Source
Gig Sanit. 2007 Mar-Apr;(2):50-1
Publication Type
Article
Author
S I Izaak
T V Panasiuk
A M Indreeva
Source
Gig Sanit. 2007 Mar-Apr;(2):50-1
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Age Factors
Anthropometry
Child
Child Development - physiology
Ethnic Groups
Female
Humans
Male
Oceans and Seas
Russia
Abstract
Four and eighty-one schoolchildren aged 7-17 years, living at a height of 2100 m above sea level, and 1677 schoolchildren of the same age, living at a height of 100-400 m above sea level, from the Kabardin-Balkarian Republic were examined by the list of morphological indices of physical development (PD), such as height (cm), body weight (kg), and chest circumference (cm). The results were rated by using the 5-score scale, by calculating the integral indicator of PD (low, moderate, and high). The schoolchildren living at high heights were ascertained to have high values. In the schoolchildren living at low heights, PD is of more harmony; the altitude children have the developed chest along with the smaller height and lower body weight. The geographical differences in three parameters of PH between Kabardin-Balkarian schoolchildren were heterodirectional: the altitude children outrun the plain one in height during a short period of time (the boys outrun at the age of 10 to 13 years; the girls do at the age of 11 to 14 years). In terms of body weight, the children from the study groups either outrun, or lag each other, in the boys and girls, these variations being opposite in time. From the age of 10 years, the altitude children of both sexes surpass the plain ones in chest circumference.
PubMed ID
17526230 View in PubMed
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421 records – page 1 of 43.