A coupled hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model was implemented in order to estimate the effects of Major Baltic Inflows on the near-bottom hydrophysical and biogeochemical conditions in the northern Baltic Proper and the western Gulf of Finland during the period 1991-2009. We compared results of a realistic reference run to the results of an experimental run where Major Baltic Inflows were suppressed. Further to the expected overall decrease in bottom salinity, this modelling experiment confirms that in the absence of strong saltwater inflows the deep areas of the Baltic Proper would become more anoxic, while in the shallower areas (western Gulf of Finland) near-bottom average conditions improve. Our experiment revealed that typical estuarine circulation results in the sporadic emergence of short-lasting events of near-bottom anoxia in the western Gulf of Finland due to transport of water masses from the Baltic Proper. Extrapolating our results beyond the modelled period, we speculate that the further deepening of the halocline in the Baltic Proper is likely to prevent inflows of anoxic water to the Gulf of Finland and in the longer term would lead to improvement in near-bottom conditions in the Baltic Proper. Our results reaffirm the importance of accurate representation of salinity dynamics in coupled Baltic Sea models serving as a basis for credible hindcast and future projection simulations of biogeochemical conditions.
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Cites: Environ Sci Technol. 2009 May 15;43(10):3412-2019544833
North Atlantic and Arctic representatives of the family Pyramidellidae had been intensively studied during the last decades. A valuable contribution was made by Warén (1989; 1991; 1993), who partially revised several genera from the Scandinavian waters. Norwegian representatives of the family were reviewed by Høisæter (2014). Distribution and diagnostic of many species had been specified by Schander (1995) and Nekhaev (2011; 2014; 2017). However, in the Eurasian Arctic Seas (except for the SW Barents Sea) only five species of Pyramidellidae had been recorded (Golikov et al. 2001; Kantor & Sysoev 2006; Nekhaev 2017): Liostomia eburnea (Stimpson, 1851), Chrysallida sublustris (Friele, 1886), Amaura candida (Møller, 1842), Amaura arctica (Dall et Bartsch, 1909) and Menestho truncatula Odhner, 1915.
Five species of the family Cancellariidae are currently known from Arctic seas: Admete contabulata Friele, 1879, A. clivicola Høisæter, 2011, A. solida (Aurivillius, 1885), A. viridula (Fabricius, 1780) and Iphinopsis inflata (Friele, 1879) (Golikov et al. 2001; Kantor Sysoev 2006; Høisæter 2011). Admete contabulata, A. clivicola and Iphinopsis inflata are only known from the Atlantic part of the Arctic, i.e. Norwegian and southwestern Barents seas (Høisæter 2011; Nekhaev 2014). Admete solida has been rarely reported since its first description from the Bering Strait (Sysoev Kantor 2002), however Nekhaev Krol (2017) recently reported a specimen from the eastern region of the Barents Sea that is similar in morphology to the holotype of this species. Admete viridula is the only representative of Admete reported from Siberian seas (Golikov et al. 2001; Lyubin 2003; Kantor Sysoev, 2006).
Photosynthetic picoeukaryotes (PPE) are recognized as major primary producers and contributors to phytoplankton biomass in oceanic and coastal environments. Molecular surveys indicate a large phylogenetic diversity in the picoeukaryotes, with members of the Prymnesiophyceae and Chrysophyseae tending to be more common in open ocean waters and Prasinophyceae dominating coastal and Arctic waters. In addition to their role as primary producers, PPE have been identified in several studies as mixotrophic and major predators of prokaryotes. Mixotrophy, the combination of photosynthesis and phagotrophy in a single organism, is well established for most photosynthetic lineages. However, green algae, including prasinophytes, were widely considered as a purely photosynthetic group. The prasinophyte Micromonas is perhaps the most common picoeukaryote in coastal and Arctic waters and is one of the relatively few cultured representatives of the picoeukaryotes available for physiological investigations. In this study, we demonstrate phagotrophy by a strain of Micromonas (CCMP2099) isolated from Arctic waters and show that environmental factors (light and nutrient concentration) affect ingestion rates in this mixotroph. In addition, we show size-selective feeding with a preference for smaller particles, and determine P vs I (photosynthesis vs irradiance) responses in different nutrient conditions. If other strains have mixotrophic abilities similar to Micromonas CCMP2099, the widespread distribution and frequently high abundances of Micromonas suggest that these green algae may have significant impact on prokaryote populations in several oceanic regimes.
Since the 1950s, nuclear weapon testing and releases from the nuclear industry have introduced anthropogenic radionuclides into the sea, and in many instances their ultimate fate are the bottom sediments. The Arctic Ocean is one of the most polluted in this respect, because, in addition to global fallout, it is impacted by regional fallout from nuclear weapon testing, and indirectly by releases from nuclear reprocessing facilities and nuclear accidents. Sea-ice formed in the shallow continental shelves incorporate sediments with variable concentrations of anthropogenic radionuclides that are transported through the Arctic Ocean and are finally released in the melting areas. In this work, we present the results of anthropogenic radionuclide analyses of sea-ice sediments (SIS) collected on five cruises from different Arctic regions and combine them with a database including prior measurements of these radionuclides in SIS. The distribution of (137)Cs and (239,240)Pu activities and the (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio in SIS showed geographical differences, in agreement with the two main sea ice drift patterns derived from the mean field of sea-ice motion, the Transpolar Drift and Beaufort Gyre, with the Fram Strait as the main ablation area. A direct comparison of data measured in SIS samples against those reported for the potential source regions permits identification of the regions from which sea ice incorporates sediments. The (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio in SIS may be used to discern the origin of sea ice from the Kara-Laptev Sea and the Alaskan shelf. However, if the (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio is similar to global fallout, it does not provide a unique diagnostic indicator of the source area, and in such cases, the source of SIS can be constrained with a combination of the (137)Cs and (239,240)Pu activities. Therefore, these anthropogenic radionuclides can be used in many instances to determine the geographical source area of sea-ice.
AOOS represents a network of critical ocean and coastal observations, data, and information products that aid our understanding of the status of Alaska's marine ecosystem and allow stakeholders to make better decisions about their use of the marine environment.
The present article presents characteristics of the therapeutic and health promoting potential of the Expedition Bay, (part of the Peter the Great Bay, the Sea of Japan), known to be a deposit of therapeutic sea muds. The great variety of local therapeutic natural resources, viz. sea muds, sea weeds, friendly climate, beeches, etc., can be used for the treatment and prevention of various diseases. The Expedition Bay was designated as a local area of recreational and therapeutic value that can be used as a basis for the creation and further development of the multi-field health resort centre (or medical spa) that would attract patients from other regions of Russia and the surrounding countries. The future centre would provide medical services based in the first place on the classical methods of climatic and peloid therapy, thalassotherapy (heliotherapy, aeroionotherapy, bathing, marine algae therapy, etc.) as well as the modern balneotherapeutic and spa technologies, therapeutic tourism for the purpose of rehabilitation and health promotion.
Benthic habitat maps, including maps of seabed sediments, have become critical spatial-decision support tools for marine ecological management and conservation. Despite the increasing recognition that environmental variables should be considered at multiple spatial scales, variables used in habitat mapping are often implemented at a single scale. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential for using environmental variables at multiple scales for modelling and mapping seabed sediments. Sixteen environmental variables were derived from multibeam echosounder data collected near Qikiqtarjuaq, Nunavut, Canada at eight spatial scales ranging from 5 to 275 m, and were tested as predictor variables for modelling seabed sediment distributions. Using grain size data obtained from grab samples, we tested which scales of each predictor variable contributed most to sediment models. Results showed that the default scale was often not the best. Out of 129 potential scale-dependent variables, 11 were selected to model the additive log-ratio of mud and sand at five different scales, and 15 were selected to model the additive log-ratio of gravel and sand, also at five different scales. Boosted Regression Tree models that explained between 46.4 and 56.3% of statistical deviance produced multiscale predictions of mud, sand, and gravel that were correlated with cross-validated test data (Spearman's ?mud = 0.77, ?sand = 0.71, ?gravel = 0.58). Predictions of individual size fractions were classified to produce a map of seabed sediments that is useful for marine spatial planning. Based on the scale-dependence of variables in this study, we concluded that spatial scale consideration is at least as important as variable selection in seabed mapping.
Cites: Biol Lett. 2009 Feb 23;5(1):39-43 PMID 18986960
Cites: Science. 2008 Feb 15;319(5865):948-52 PMID 18276889
Cites: PLoS One. 2015 Oct 23;10(10):e0140061 PMID 26496639