The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is one of the most widely used screening instruments for maternal perinatal anxiety and depression. It has maintained its robust performance when translated into multiple languages, when used prenatally and when used with perinatal fathers; thus the tool is also known as the Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS). However, there have been no published psychometric data on versions of the EPDS adapted for screening Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women. We describe the development of 'translations' of the EPDS and report their basic psychometric properties.
During the Queensland arm of the beyond blue National Postnatal Depression Program (2001-2005), partnerships with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women were forged. At TAIHS' stand alone "Mums and Babies" unit 181 women of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander descent were recruited into the study through their antenatal and postnatal visits and 25 were recruited at Mt Isa. Participants completed either the translation or the standard version of the EPDS both antenatally and postnatally.
The 'translations' of the EPDS demonstrated a high level of reliability. The was a strong correlation between the 'translations' and the EPDS. The 'translations' and the standard EPDS both identified high rates of women at risk of depression although the 'translations' identified higher rates.
We argue that the 'translation' may have been a more accurate predictor of perinatal women at risk for depression, but acknowledge that a lack of validity evidence weakens this conclusion.
Long-term measures to reduce tobacco consumption in Australia have had differential effects in the population. The prevalence of smoking in Aboriginal peoples is currently more than double that of the non-Aboriginal population. Aboriginal Health Workers are responsible for providing primary health care to Aboriginal clients including smoking cessation programs. However, Aboriginal Health Workers are frequently smokers themselves, and their smoking undermines the smoking cessation services they deliver to Aboriginal clients. An understanding of the barriers to quitting smoking experienced by Aboriginal Health Workers is needed to design culturally relevant smoking cessation programs. Once smoking is reduced in Aboriginal Health Workers, they may then be able to support Aboriginal clients to quit smoking.
We undertook a fundamental qualitative description study underpinned by social ecological theory. The research was participatory, and academic researchers worked in partnership with personnel from the local Aboriginal health council. The barriers Aboriginal Health Workers experience in relation to quitting smoking were explored in 34 semi-structured interviews (with 23 Aboriginal Health Workers and 11 other health staff) and 3 focus groups (n = 17 participants) with key informants. Content analysis was performed on transcribed text and interview notes.
Aboriginal Health Workers spoke of burdensome stress and grief which made them unable to prioritise quitting smoking. They lacked knowledge about quitting and access to culturally relevant quitting resources. Interpersonal obstacles included a social pressure to smoke, social exclusion when quitting, and few role models. In many workplaces, smoking was part of organisational culture and there were challenges to implementation of Smokefree policy. Respondents identified inadequate funding of tobacco programs and a lack of Smokefree public spaces as policy level barriers. The normalisation of smoking in Aboriginal society was an overarching challenge to quitting.
Aboriginal Health Workers experience multilevel barriers to quitting smoking that include personal, social, cultural and environmental factors. Multidimensional smoking cessation programs are needed that reduce the stress and burden for Aboriginal Health Workers; provide access to culturally relevant quitting resources; and address the prevailing normalisation of smoking in the family, workplace and community.
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American Indian and Alaska Native Programs, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Nighthorse Campbell Native Health Building, P.O. Box 6508, Mailstop F800, Aurora, Colorado 80045, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
OBJECTIVE: Anthropologists with an interest in American Indian alcohol use have long held that how native people drink has been conditioned by aspects of the social organization of their societies prior to the disruptive influences of European colonialism. Our goal in this article was to explicitly test the importance of these factors in four contemporary American Indian cultural groups. METHOD: Using data on adolescent alcohol use drawn from the first full wave of the longitudinal Voices of Indian Teens Project (N = 1,651, 51% female), we tested whether patterns of quantity-frequency of alcohol use and the negative consequences of alcohol use predicted by social organzational variables were found among contemporary adolescents and, subsequently, whether these differences persisted when other, more proximal, variables were included. RESULTS: Cultural differences appeared to account for a small percentage of the variance in both quantity-frequency of alcohol use and negative consequences in the initial steps of our analyses, but the pattern in these data was not consistent with the predictions of existing theories regarding aboriginal social organization. Moreover, these cultural differences were no longer significant in the final step of our analyses, suggesting that the cultural differences that did exist were better explained by other factors, at least among these adolescents. CONCLUSIONS: Although these analyses did not indicate that culture was irrelevant in understanding adolescent alcohol use in American Indian communities, classic formulations of these effects were of limited utility in understanding the experiences of contemporary American Indian adolescents.
Subjective health complaints without or with minimal somatic findings (pain, fatigue) are common and frequent reasons for encounter with the general practitioner and for long-term sickness leave and disability. The complaints are often attributed to the stressors of modern life. Is this true? We interviewed 120 Aborigine Mangyans (native population, M age = 33.5 years, 72.5% women) living under primitive conditions in the jungle of Mindoro, an island in the Philippines, and 101 persons living in a small coastal town on the same island (coastal population, M age = 33.8 years, 60.4% women). Both groups had more musculoskeletal complaints, fatigue, mood changes, and gastrointestinal complaints than a representative sample from the Norwegian population (N = 1,243). Our common subjective health complaints, therefore, are not specific for industrialized societies.
Asthma is the most common chronic condition affecting Aboriginal youth aged 8 to 12 years in Canada. Research investigating psychosocial challenges associated with asthma is limited. This study examines support resources, support-seeking strategies, support and education needs, and intervention preferences of Aboriginal youth with asthma and their caregivers in an effort to encourage community-wide, health-promoting behaviors.
We employed a community-based participatory research design to conduct interviews with 21 youths aged 8 to 12 years and 17 caregivers from 5 Mi'kmaq communities in Unama'ki (Cape Breton) Nova Scotia, Canada. After conducting interviews that explored existing and desired social, educational, and health support in participating communities, we held a 2-day asthma camp to engage participants in asthma education, social support networking, and cultural activities. At the camp, we collected data through participant observation, sharing circles, focus groups, and youth drawings of their experiences living with asthma.
Our study yielded 4 key findings: 1) asthma triggers included household mold, indoor smoking, pets, season change, strenuous exercise, extreme cold, and humidity; 2) social and educational support is lacking in Mi'kmaq communities despite a strong desire for these services; 3) cultural, linguistic, and geographic barriers to accessing support exist; and 4) family members are primary support resources.
Improved support and educational resources are needed to foster effective Mi'kmaq asthma support networks. Future asthma interventions for marginalized populations must be culturally meaningful and linguistically accessible to those using and providing asthma support.
Maori are disproportionately affected by cardiovascular disease (CVD), which is the main reason for the eight year difference in life expectancy between Maori and non-Maori. The primary care-based IMPACT (IMProving Adherence using Combination Therapy) trial evaluates whether fixed dose combination therapy (a "polypill") improves adherence to guideline-based therapy compared with current care among people at high risk of CVD. Interventions shown in trials to be effective do not necessarily reduce ethnic disparities, and may in fact widen them. Indigenous populations with poorer health outcomes are often under-represented in trials so the effect of interventions cannot be assessed for them, specifically. Therefore, the IMPACT trial aimed to recruit as many Maori as non-Maori to assess the consistency of the effect of the polypill. This paper describes the methods and results of the recruitment strategy used to achieve this.
Experienced Maori researchers were involved in trial governance throughout trial development and conduct. The trial Steering Committee included leading Maori researchers and was committed to equal recruitment of Maori and non-Maori. Additional funding and Maori research nurses were sought to allow home-based assessment, establishment of the relationship between research nurse and participant, more family involvement prior to enrollment, continuity of the research nurse-participant relationship, and acknowledgement of other Maori culturally important procedures, interactions, language and manners. Primary care practices with high enrollment of Maori were targeted, with over-sampling of potentially eligible Maori patients, lower thresholds for screening of Maori and 6 months continued Maori recruitment after non-Maori recruitment had finished.
A total of 257 Maori and 256 non-Maori participants were randomized. Four Maori and eight non-Maori participants were randomized per research nurse per month. Potentially eligible Maori were more likely than non-Maori to proceed to subsequent stages of recruitment. Differences between randomized Maori and non-Maori were evident (e.g. Maori were less likely to have established coronary artery disease).
Recruitment of equal numbers of indigenous and non-indigenous participants is possible if it is prioritised, adequately resourced and self-determination is supported.
The trial is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry ACTRN12606000067572.
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The authors present a comprehensive review on U.S. Pacific Islander suicide and suicide-related behaviors to extend the knowledge and understanding of suicide and suicide-related behaviors among the indigenous peoples of the state of Hawai'i, the territories of American Samoa, Guam, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and the Pacific Island Nations of Micronesia (Federated States of Micronesia, the Republic of Belau [Palau], and the Republic of the Marshall Islands). Historical, geographic, epidemiological, social, and cultural information is presented on these Pacific Island populations. Suicide behavioral data are presented for Pacific Islanders living within the U.S. and affiliated Pacific territories and nations from the existing scientific literature along with archival data and 2 epidemiological studies that assess suicidal behaviors and related psychosocial factors and measures of psychopathology among large community samples of youth in Hawai'i. The authors describe common patterns and differences among these populations, along with social-cultural practices that may explain suicide phenomenology among these U.S. indigenous peoples who--while small in numbers when compared with the total U.S. population--possess striking health disparities when compared to other populations within the U.S. and in their island homelands.