The authors evaluate relationships of parameters describing activities of Health center and selected according to "discrete correlation galaxies" method with characteristics of health state of population covered by the center. The article contains mathematic models that could be a basis for forecasting changes of health state characteristics under variation of Health center activity parameters.
A new agrarian policy in a number of countries caused the necessity to introduce additional measures aimed at preventing of agricultural workers' health. The epidemiological studies in the Ukraine revealed the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (ischemic heart disease, arterial hypertension) particularly among operators of agricultural machines and workers being in contact with pesticides. The state of health of women working in greenhouses and those in sugar beet growing is assessed. The rate of spontaneous abortions and other pregnancy disorders as well as the retardation in physical development of newborns and infants are evaluated. The necessity to improve the ergonomy of agricultural machines, to increase their quality and reliability is emphasized. The search of physiological optimum of efforts to steering wheel and pedals is given as an example. This approach is of general significance and can be applied to road-building machines as well. The role of pesticide management in the Ukraine is also considered in this paper. The damage to human health and the environment is most often connected with violations of regulations, or persistent usage of highly toxic substances. The most urgent tasks are the revision of the registered and applied pesticides, development of new ecological and hygienic standards, improvement of biomonitoring methods and efficiency of the state sanitary supervision.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the long-term economic outcomes (education, labor force participation, occupation, and income) associated with female adolescent marriage and childbearing. The 1981 Canadian census is the data source for all women in Canada at age 30, controlling for age at marriage and at first birth. The data suggest that women at age 30 in Canada are in the best economic circumstances when they remain single or when they marry at age 20 or older and either remain childless or begin their childbearing at age 25 or older. The implications of these findings are discussed.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate reproductive outcomes such as birthweight, preterm births, and postterrm births among women working in research laboratories while pregnant. METHODS: Female university personnel were identified from a source cohort of Swedish laboratory employees, and the database was linked to the medical birth register. The first births of the women were included in the analysis, 249 pregnancies among the women with laboratory work and 613 pregnancies among the women without laboratory tasks. Information about exposure to various laboratory agents was obtained from a previous questionnaire investigation at the research group level according to a specific definition. The ponderal index and ratio between observed and expected birthweights were calculated. Logistic regression models were used for analyses of dichotomous outcomes (preterm, postterrm and birthweight). RESULTS: Exposure to laboratory work with solvents was associated with an increased risk of preterm births, the estimated odds ratio (OR) being 3.4 (1.0
We studied the relation between birth defects and maternal agricultural work in a nationwide time- and area-matched case-referent series of 1,306 pairs of infants (581 orofacial clefts, 365 central nervous system defects, 360 skeletal defects) obtained through the Finnish Register of Congenital Malformations. We supplemented the Register data, including the mothers' latest and previous pregnancies, diseases, consumption of drugs and alcohol, smoking habits, and the like, with detailed interviews on the mothers' work conditions. When all of the birth defects were pooled and agricultural work was compared with nonagricultural work in the first trimester of pregnancy, the adjusted odds ratio was 1.4 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.9-2.0]. For orofacial clefts, the corresponding odds ratio was 1.9 (95% CI = 1.1-3.5). An industrial hygienist's blinded assessment indicated that seven mothers of infants with orofacial clefts and three reference mothers had been exposed to pesticides in agricultural work; the adjusted odds ratio for work with pesticide exposure, when compared with unexposed agricultural work, was 1.9 (95% CI = 0.4-8.3). Exposure to solvents did not explain the observed association.
Environmental exposure during pregnancy may have lifelong health consequences for the offspring and some studies have association between maternal exposure to air pollution during pregnancy and offspring's birth weight. However, many of these studies do not take into account small-scale variations in exposure, residential mobility, and work addresses during pregnancy. We used information from the National Birth Registry of Norway to examine associations between ambient environmental exposure such as air pollution and temperature, and offspring's birth weight taking advantage of information on migration history and work address in a large population-based cohort. A dispersion model was used to estimate ambient air pollution levels at all residential addresses and work addresses for a total of 25,229 pregnancies between 1999 and 2002 in Oslo, Norway. Ambient exposure to traffic pollution for the entire pregnancy was associated with a reduction in term birth weight in crude analyzes when comparing children of the highest and lowest exposed mothers. No evidence for an association between exposure to traffic pollution at home and work addresses and term birth weight after adjustment for covariates known to influence birth weight during pregnancy. After stratification, small statistically non-significant reductions were present but only for multiparious mothers. This group also had less residential mobility and less employment during pregnancy. The overall findings suggest no clear association between term birth weight and traffic pollution exposure during pregnancy. However, mobility patterns could introduce possible confounding when examining small-scale variations in exposure by using addresses. This could be of importance in future studies.
The toxicity of pesticides on human reproduction is largely unknown--particularly how mixtures of pesticide products might affect fetal toxicity. The Ontario Farm Family Health Study collected data by questionnaire on the identity and timing of pesticide use on the farm, lifestyle factors, and a complete reproductive history from the farm operator and eligible couples living on the farm. A total of 2,110 women provided information on 3,936 pregnancies, including 395 spontaneous abortions. To explore critical windows of exposure and target sites for toxicity, we examined exposures separately for preconception (3 months before and up to month of conception) and postconception (first trimester) windows and for early ( 34 years of age) was the strongest risk factor for spontaneous abortions, and we observed several interactions between pesticides in the older age group using Classification and Regression Tree analysis. This study shows that timing of exposure and restricting analyses to more homogeneous endpoints are important in characterizing the reproductive toxicity of pesticides.