The article covers first published main parameters of management and practical activities of national system for mandatory social insurance of workmen's occupational risks within a Federal Law No 125-FL "On mandatory social insurance against occupational accidents and diseases". The authors present dynamics of insurers (employers) registration, values of allocation rates, dynamics and structure of insurance payments, results of investigations on traumatism and occupational diseases. The suggestions are ways to improve the existing system from occupational medicine viewpoint.
While regulations for workplace lead exposure become more strict, their effectiveness in decreasing blood lead concentrations and the method by which this is attained have not been evaluated.
An analysis was conducted of 10,190 blood lead samples from employees of 10 high-risk workplaces collected in Manitoba, 1979-87, as part of regulated occupational surveillance.
A significant decrease in blood lead concentrations was observed overall as well as for each individual company. A 1979 government regulation to reduce blood lead to below 3.38 mumol/L (70 micrograms/dl) was followed by a drop in blood lead concentrations; a 1983 order to reduce blood leads to below 2.90 mumol/L (60 micrograms/dl) was not followed by such a drop. Longitudinal analysis by individual workers suggested that companies were complying by use of administrative control, i.e., removing workers to lower lead areas until blood lead levels had fallen, then returning them to high lead areas.
Focusing upon blood lead as the sole criterion for compliance is not effective; regulations must specifically require environmental monitoring and controls. Biological surveillance serves as "back-up" to environmental surveillance and this database illustrates the usefulness of a comprehensive centralized surveillance system.
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Although human rights legislation has important implications for occupational physicians, these implications may be overlooked in the practice of occupational medicine in other countries where human rights legislation may be different. The potential for significant oversights becomes greater as organizations continue to centralize international business support functions, such as occupational health services, operating from a single site. Human rights legislation has important implications with respect to policy decisions upon which an occupational physician has influence. This includes decisions about whether to conduct drug and alcohol testing; the performance of medical examinations; evaluating issues related to health and safety concerns of pregnant employees; and the need to work accommodate those with handicaps as defined by human rights legislation. This article examines the application of the Ontario human rights legislation in these areas.
BACKGROUND: Under the Norwegian Environmental Tobacco Smoke Act, a minimum of 50% of tables in restaurants have to be in smoke-free areas. The Ministry of Health and Social Affairs has defined "smoke-free restaurants" as a priority objective in its anti-tobacco strategy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We have investigated smoking policies in restaurants in the City of Tromsø in Northern Norway, as reported by restaurateurs in 1998. Representatives of all the 85 restaurants, bars and pubs in the city were interviewed and their smoking policies and habits reported. This study was part of the local health authority's evaluation of the degree of compliance with the legislation. RESULTS: In 71% of establishments, at least 50% of tables were smoke-free; in 88%, smoking areas were in compliance with the legislation. 86% of restaurateurs reported a positive or neutral attitude to the legislation, 80% thought that their guests were of the same opinion. 47% smoked every day; however, there was no association between smoking habits and smoking policies. INTERPRETATION: Though the prevalence of smoking was high among restaurateurs, this did not affect their attitudes towards the Environmental Tobacco Smoke Act or their policies on smoking.
The authors followed historical background of occurrence, development, transformation and contemporary state of topic concerning ASLE for chemicals in the air of workplace over 1977-2010 in USSR and Russian Federation. The article covers prospects to improve regulation and methodic aspects of prompt regulation for industrial chemicals in the air of workplace.
The other day, several nurses on our medical-surgical unit got into a heated debate about staff identification. One nurse was upset that her uncle who had been a patient in another hospital had not been able to find out the names of the nurses who cared for him. Her uncle wanted to write the hospital about concerns he had on the nursing care he received and was very frustrated because the hospital wouldn't tell him the names of the nurses. Some of us said the hospital was right, employers have to protect nurses from harm and should not release the names.
The purpose of occupational exposure limits values (OELs) is to regulate exposure to chemicals and minimize the risk of health effects at work. National authorities are responsible for the setting and updating of national OELs. In addition, the EU sets indicative occupational exposure limit values (IOELVs), which have to be considered by the Member States. Under the new European legislation on chemicals (REACH), manufacturers and importers are obliged to establish derived no-effect levels (DNELs) for chemicals that are manufactured or imported in quantities >10 tonnes per year. Chemical safety data sheets must report both OELs and the DNEL values, if such have been set. This may cause confusion at workplaces, especially if the values differ from each other. In this study, we explored how EU IOELVs and Finnish national OELs [Haitallisiksi tunnetut pitoisuudet (HTP) values] correlate with worker inhalation DNELs for substances registered under REACH. The long-term DNEL value for workers (inhalation) was identical to the corresponding IOELV for the majority of the substances (64/87 cases). Comparison of DNELs with HTP values revealed that the values were identical or close to each other in 159 cases (49%), whereas the DNEL was considerably higher in 69 cases, and considerably lower in 87 cases. Examples of cases with high differences between Finnish national OELs and DNELs are given. However, as the DNELs were not systematically lower than the OELs, the default assessment factors suggested by REACH technical guidance had obviously not been used in many of the REACH registrations.