Time-study techniques were used at several chemical enterprises to assess 13 basic elements of the operator's labour, and to determine their average energy inputs in the conditions of a modern chemical plant. A table was drawn up as a time-study guidance for establishing energy inputs in a unit of time, thus determining the labour intensity degree. The contributors set forth a hypothesis regarding the influence of chemical processing products on the non-direct calorimetry indices in energy input analyses. It was further shown that, with the workers contacts with chemical substances in the concentrations peculiar of a modern chemical plant, no correlation corresponding to the chemical factors was required.
A reliable and sensitive graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) method with Zeeman background correction was developed for the analysis of aluminium in serum and urine in the biological monitoring of aluminium exposure. The method is based on platform atomisation in pyrolytically coated graphite tubes after fourfold dilution with nitric acid. For serum analysis, a matrix matched standard curve is prepared and for urine the method of standard additions is used. The within-run imprecision (C.V.) for serum and urine was 3% and 5%, and the between-day imprecision, 6% and 7.2%, at a concentration level of 4.0 mumol/l. The between-day imprecision for urinary aluminium was 15.7% at a concentration level of 0.24 mumol/l. The detection limits were 0.02 mumol/l for serum and 0.07 mumol/l for urine. During 1 year of participation in TEQAS external quality assessment scheme of the Robens Institute for Health and Safety (Guildford, UK) for serum aluminium the maximum cumulative performance score was achieved. For urinary aluminium a certificate in the external quality control scheme of the German Society of Occupational Medicine was obtained. The mean concentration of aluminium in a non-exposed population, who did not use antacid drugs, was 0.06 mumol/l (S.D. 0.03, range 0.02-0.13, n = 21) in serum, and 0.33 mumol/l (S.D. 0.18, range 0.07-0.82, n = 44) in urine. The upper reference limit for aluminium in a healthy, non-exposed population was estimated to be 0.1 mumol/l in serum and 0.6 mumol/l in urine.
Lipid and antioxidant state of clinically normal subjects working in deep mines was studied under natural conditions during one month. Disorders in lipid metabolism and intensified peroxidation were recorded in these subjects. A prophylactic ration has been recommended considering the food status, alimentary risk factors and extreme conditions of miners' labour.
The contributors review the peculiarities of modelling the labour regimen for the vibration-affected professions in the North-West, based on the dosage-related approach, inasmuch as the existing techniques of ore deposits elaboration (chamber-long face and magnification of ore), and the organization of pit works on cyclogrammes, did not allow a practical application of the labour regimen recommendations proposed by the USSR Ministry of Health.