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32 records – page 1 of 4.

Air quality, mortality, and economic benefits of a smoke - free workplace law for non-smoking Ontario bar workers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature120430
Source
Indoor Air. 2013 Apr;23(2):93-104
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2013
Author
J. Repace
B. Zhang
S J Bondy
N. Benowitz
R. Ferrence
Author Affiliation
Repace Associates Inc., Bowie 20720, MD, USA. repace@comcast.net
Source
Indoor Air. 2013 Apr;23(2):93-104
Date
Apr-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Case-Control Studies
Cotinine - urine
Female
Humans
Male
Occupational Exposure - legislation & jurisprudence - prevention & control - statistics & numerical data
Ontario
Risk assessment
Tobacco Smoke Pollution - legislation & jurisprudence - prevention & control - statistics & numerical data
Young Adult
Abstract
We estimated the impact of a smoke-free workplace bylaw on non-smoking bar workers' health in Ontario, Canada. We measured bar workers' urine cotinine before (n = 99) and after (n = 91) a 2004 smoke-free workplace bylaw. Using pharmacokinetic and epidemiological models, we estimated workers' fine-particle (PM2.5 ) air pollution exposure and mortality risks from workplace secondhand smoke (SHS). workers' pre-law geometric mean cotinine was 10.3 ng/ml; post-law dose declined 70% to 3.10 ng/ml and reported work hours of exposure by 90%. Pre-law, 97% of workers' doses exceeded the 90th percentile for Canadians of working age. Pre-law-estimated 8-h average workplace PM2.5 exposure from SHS was 419 µg/m(3) or 'Very Poor' air quality, while outdoor PM2.5 levels averaged 7 µg/m(3) , 'Very Good' air quality by Canadian Air Quality Standards. We estimated that the bar workers' annual mortality rate from workplace SHS exposure was 102 deaths per 100000 persons. This was 2.4 times the occupational disease fatality rate for all Ontario workers. We estimated that half to two-thirds of the 10620 Ontario bar workers were non-smokers. Accordingly, Ontario's smoke-free law saved an estimated 5-7 non-smoking bar workers' lives annually, valued at CA $50 million to $68 million (US $49 million to $66 million).
PubMed ID
23006034 View in PubMed
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A comparison of REACH-derived no-effect levels for workers with EU indicative occupational exposure limit values and national limit values in Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature270856
Source
Ann Occup Hyg. 2015 May;59(4):401-15
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2015
Author
Sallamari Tynkkynen
Tiina Santonen
Helene Stockmann-Juvala
Source
Ann Occup Hyg. 2015 May;59(4):401-15
Date
May-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Environmental Monitoring - legislation & jurisprudence - methods
European Union
Finland
Government Regulation
Hazardous Substances - standards
Humans
Material Safety Data Sheets - legislation & jurisprudence
No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level
Occupational Exposure - legislation & jurisprudence - standards
Occupational Health - legislation & jurisprudence - standards
Risk assessment
Threshold Limit Values
Workplace
Abstract
The purpose of occupational exposure limits values (OELs) is to regulate exposure to chemicals and minimize the risk of health effects at work. National authorities are responsible for the setting and updating of national OELs. In addition, the EU sets indicative occupational exposure limit values (IOELVs), which have to be considered by the Member States. Under the new European legislation on chemicals (REACH), manufacturers and importers are obliged to establish derived no-effect levels (DNELs) for chemicals that are manufactured or imported in quantities >10 tonnes per year. Chemical safety data sheets must report both OELs and the DNEL values, if such have been set. This may cause confusion at workplaces, especially if the values differ from each other. In this study, we explored how EU IOELVs and Finnish national OELs [Haitallisiksi tunnetut pitoisuudet (HTP) values] correlate with worker inhalation DNELs for substances registered under REACH. The long-term DNEL value for workers (inhalation) was identical to the corresponding IOELV for the majority of the substances (64/87 cases). Comparison of DNELs with HTP values revealed that the values were identical or close to each other in 159 cases (49%), whereas the DNEL was considerably higher in 69 cases, and considerably lower in 87 cases. Examples of cases with high differences between Finnish national OELs and DNELs are given. However, as the DNELs were not systematically lower than the OELs, the default assessment factors suggested by REACH technical guidance had obviously not been used in many of the REACH registrations.
PubMed ID
25638729 View in PubMed
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A conversation about the work environment.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature216448
Source
Int J Health Serv. 1995;25(1):117-28
Publication Type
Article
Date
1995
Author
R. Sass
Author Affiliation
College of Commerce, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada.
Source
Int J Health Serv. 1995;25(1):117-28
Date
1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Collective Bargaining - legislation & jurisprudence
Expert Testimony - legislation & jurisprudence
Health Policy - legislation & jurisprudence
Humans
Liability, Legal
Occupational Exposure - legislation & jurisprudence
Occupational health - legislation & jurisprudence
Workers' Compensation - legislation & jurisprudence
Abstract
The author looks at work environment matters from the perspective of public policy-making and the policy instruments used to deal with workplace health and safety: standard setting; joint health and safety committees; compliance, enforcement, and prosecution; workers' compensation as an economic incentive; and collective bargaining. While regarding all as necessary, the author considers them as separately and collectively, fundamentally flawed and therefore insufficient, because liberal public policy-making itself is problematic. He proposes an alternative way of thinking about this subject from the perspective of the "politics of meaning."
PubMed ID
7729963 View in PubMed
Less detail
Source
Int J Occup Environ Health. 2008 Jan-Mar;14(1):57-66
Publication Type
Article
Author
Morris Greenberg
Author Affiliation
Division of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Department of Health, UK. mgreenberg@toucansurf.com
Source
Int J Occup Environ Health. 2008 Jan-Mar;14(1):57-66
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Asbestos, Serpentine - history - poisoning
Asbestosis - epidemiology - etiology - history
Canada - epidemiology
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Health Policy - legislation & jurisprudence
History, 20th Century
History, 21st Century
Humans
Lung Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Male
Mesothelioma - epidemiology - etiology
Mining - history
Occupational Exposure - legislation & jurisprudence
Abstract
The commercial exploitation of asbestos may be dated from the late 1870s, when Canada was the major world source. Reports of severe and fatal respiratory disease in workers in asbestos factories appeared in Britain (1898, 1906), and in France (1906) and Italy (1908). In 1912 the Canadian Department of Labour denied that the health of Quebec's millers and miners was affected. A series of denials appeared for over 40 years, until in 1955 a Thetford Mines medical officer reported finding that between 1945 and 1953, among some 4,000 asbestos workers 128 had asbestosis of various degrees of severity, 121 diagnosed radiographically, and 33 confirmed at autopsy. Although a committee of inquiry into health in the asbestos industry (1976), and a Royal Commission on health and safety arising in the use of asbestos in Ontario (1984) confirmed that disease had occurred, these findings were to have no adverse effects on asbestos exports. Rather, the inquiries constituted elements in the industry's successful public relations exercise that continues to operate to this day. Even when an increasing number of national bodies have legislated for total bans on asbestos use, a policy with which all the international bodies concerned with public health agree, the Canadian PR apparatus continues to be able to call on physicians and scientists prepared to oppose the consensuses reached by the independent advisors to these bodies.
PubMed ID
18320733 View in PubMed
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[Development of social hygienic research in industrial medicine].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature107653
Source
Med Tr Prom Ekol. 2013;(6):13-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
N F Izmerov
G I Tikhonova
A N Churanova
Source
Med Tr Prom Ekol. 2013;(6):13-8
Date
2013
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Academies and Institutes - history
Epidemiologic Methods
Health Records, Personal
History, 20th Century
History, 21st Century
Humans
Industry - manpower
Occupational Diseases - etiology - prevention & control - therapy
Occupational Exposure - legislation & jurisprudence - prevention & control
Occupational Health - history
Occupational Health Services - legislation & jurisprudence - methods
Occupational Medicine - history - methods
Research - history
Russia
Abstract
The article covers history of establishment and development of social hygienic research in Industrial Medicine Research Institute with RAMSc over last 90 years. The materials deal with founders and leaders of Social Hygienic research laboratory in various periods, with history of occupational morbidity studies, with development and results of social hygienic studies, organization of occupational therapy service in Russia, studies concerning remote effects of occupational hazards through analytic epidemiology methods, with considerably restricted possibilities in studies of relationships (especially remote) between work conditions and workers' health nowadays due to implemented law on personal data and new approaches to evaluation of industrial hazards effects on health.
PubMed ID
23986946 View in PubMed
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Digging into construction: social networks and their potential impact on knowledge transfer.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature123436
Source
Work. 2012;42(2):223-32
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
N A Carlan
D M Kramer
P. Bigelow
R. Wells
E. Garritano
P. Vi
Author Affiliation
Centre of Research Expertise for the Prevention of Musculoskeletal Disorders, Department of Kinesiology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada. ncarlan@healthy.uwaterloo.ca
Source
Work. 2012;42(2):223-32
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Administrative Personnel - psychology
Canada
Construction Industry - manpower
Decision Making, Organizational
Efficiency, Organizational
Humans
Information Dissemination - methods
Information Systems - organization & administration
Interinstitutional Relations
Interprofessional Relations
Interviews as Topic
Labor Unions - organization & administration
Musculoskeletal Diseases - prevention & control
Occupational Exposure - legislation & jurisprudence - prevention & control
Organizational Culture
Organizational Innovation
Personnel Selection - organization & administration
Qualitative Research
Safety Management - methods - standards
Salaries and Fringe Benefits
Social Networking
Workload - standards
Abstract
A six-year study is exploring the most effective ways to disseminate ideas to reduce musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in the construction sector. The sector was targeted because MSDs account for 35% of all lost time injuries. This paper reports on the organization of the construction sector, and maps potential pathways of communication, including social networks, to set the stage for future dissemination.
The managers, health and safety specialists, union health and safety representatives, and 28 workers from small, medium and large construction companies participated.
Over a three-year period, data were collected from 47 qualitative interviews. Questions were guided by the PARIHS (Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services) knowledge-transfer conceptual framework and adapted for the construction sector.
The construction sector is a complex and dynamic sector, with non-linear reporting relationships, and divided and diluted responsibilities. Four networks were identified that can potentially facilitate the dissemination of new knowledge: worksite-project networks; union networks; apprenticeship program networks; and networks established by the Construction Safety Association/Infrastructure Health and Safety Association.
Flexible and multi-directional lines of communication must be used in this complex environment. This has implications for the future choice of knowledge transfer strategies.
PubMed ID
22699189 View in PubMed
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Disproportionate organizational injustice: a close look at facilities exempted from indoor smoking laws in Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature107876
Source
Healthc Policy. 2012 Nov;8(2):24-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2012
Author
Mohammed Al-Hamdani
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychology, Saint Mary’s University, 923, Robie Street, Halifax, NS. alhamdani.mohammed@gmail.com
Source
Healthc Policy. 2012 Nov;8(2):24-9
Date
Nov-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Humans
Occupational Exposure - legislation & jurisprudence
Occupational Health
Residential Facilities - legislation & jurisprudence - manpower
Smoke-Free Policy - legislation & jurisprudence
Smoking - adverse effects - legislation & jurisprudence
Social Justice
Tobacco Smoke Pollution - legislation & jurisprudence
Abstract
Federal and provincial legislation bans smoking in indoor public spaces and workplaces, yet exemptions exist for residential facilities such as nursing homes and addiction treatment centres. In relying on ventilated smoking rooms, however, these organizations are failing to protect the health of their employees and clients. Increased use of risk messages regarding the harms of second- and third-hand smoke, together with enhanced nicotine replacement therapies for smokers, would rectify this disproportionate injustice. Such an approach must also recognize and counteract the efforts of the tobacco industry to block total indoor smoking bans.
Notes
Cites: J Subst Abuse Treat. 1993 Mar-Apr;10(2):125-318389892
Cites: J Addict Dis. 1991;11(2):67-771667365
Cites: Am J Public Health. 2003 Apr;93(4):585-9212660202
Cites: CMAJ. 2011 Dec 13;183(18):E1334-4422042991
Cites: J Subst Abuse Treat. 2005 Jun;28(4):331-4015925267
Cites: Nicotine Tob Res. 2009 Apr;11(4):381-619346510
Cites: Tob Control. 2008 Apr;17(2):123-718285386
Cites: J Appl Psychol. 1991 Oct;76(5):698-7071960142
Cites: N Engl J Med. 2010 Jun 17;362(24):2319-2520554988
PubMed ID
23968612 View in PubMed
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Experiences in developing legislation protecting reproductive health.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature64572
Source
J Occup Environ Med. 1995 Aug;37(8):974-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1995
Author
H K Taskinen
J. Olsen
B. Bach
Author Affiliation
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
Source
J Occup Environ Med. 1995 Aug;37(8):974-9
Date
Aug-1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Denmark
Female
Finland
Humans
Male
Occupational Exposure - legislation & jurisprudence - prevention & control - standards
Occupational health - legislation & jurisprudence
Parental Leave - economics - legislation & jurisprudence
Pregnancy
Reproduction
Reproductive Medicine - standards
Risk assessment
Abstract
The law regarding special maternity leave for pregnant women in hazardous work situations has been in effect since 1981 in Denmark. In Finland, legislation regarding the protection of the reproductive health of working men and women and of pregnant women has been in effect since 1991. According to the special maternity leave law, women who are exposed to certain chemical, physical, or biological agents that are considered to be harmful to the fetus may be entitled to special maternity leave and benefits. In Denmark and in Finland, approximately 1% and 0.1%, respectively, of pregnant women have used the special maternity leave due to a risky work situation. In Finland, the yearly costs of the leave have been US $200,000 to $250,000. Trained occupational physicians can facilitate changes at the workplace that will decrease the need for special maternity leave.
PubMed ID
8520964 View in PubMed
Less detail

[Exposure to carcinogens in work environment today. State of the art, problems and prospects raised by the Law 626/94].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature205079
Source
Med Lav. 1998 Mar-Apr;89(2):102-9
Publication Type
Article
Author
F. Carnevale
A. Baldasseroni
Author Affiliation
UO PISSL G. Pieraccini Azienda Sanitaria di Firenze.
Source
Med Lav. 1998 Mar-Apr;89(2):102-9
Language
Italian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Carcinogens, Environmental - toxicity
Finland
Humans
Italy
Neoplasms - chemically induced - prevention & control
Occupational Diseases - chemically induced - prevention & control
Occupational Exposure - legislation & jurisprudence - prevention & control
Occupational health - legislation & jurisprudence
Risk factors
Abstract
The implementation in our country of recent legislation on carcinogenic risk assessment and management (VIIth title of Law 626/94) is considered. The authors describe potentialities and limits of the new legislation and of the derived Guidelines issued by the Regions. The health policy in this field and possible evolution in the near future are outlined, bearing in mind the experience of other countries. A short list of questions is suggested as a contribution to the discussion on the future scenario: whether exposure to carcinogens should be lower in the working environment than in the general environment; what is the relative importance of multifactoriality, individual biological variability, individual life-style in the genesis of cancers; whether medical health surveillance is worthwhile in terms of primary prevention; is it always true that there is no threshold limit value for carcinogens; what is the role of individual attitudes to prevention in exposure to carcinogens compared to "objective" protection; which balance between costs and benefits should be aimed at.
PubMed ID
9673099 View in PubMed
Less detail

Exposure to tobacco smoke and prevalence of symptoms decreased among Finnish restaurant workers after the smoke-free law.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature131740
Source
Am J Ind Med. 2012 Jan;55(1):37-43
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2012
Author
Jere P Reijula
Tom S-E Johnsson
P Simo Kaleva
Kari E Reijula
Author Affiliation
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
Source
Am J Ind Med. 2012 Jan;55(1):37-43
Date
Jan-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Analysis of Variance
Chi-Square Distribution
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Occupational Exposure - legislation & jurisprudence - prevention & control
Prevalence
Questionnaires
Respiratory Tract Diseases - epidemiology - etiology
Restaurants - legislation & jurisprudence
Tobacco Smoke Pollution - legislation & jurisprudence - prevention & control
Abstract
The impact of tobacco legislation and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in bars and restaurants were assessed in a national survey.
Questionnaire surveys among restaurant workers were conducted in 2007 before the smoking ban, and in 2009.
The exposure to ETS decreased significantly after the launch of the 2007 smoke-free law. During 2007-2009, the prevalence of those restaurant workers with no exposure increased from 54% to 82% (P-value
PubMed ID
21882216 View in PubMed
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32 records – page 1 of 4.