A study was performed of acute pneumonia (AP) morbidity among the workers exposed to respiratory irritation inducing chemical substances, which revealed a marked AP prevalence in these professional groups. A qualitative analysis of the AP cases severity helped to establish some peculiarities of the disease course in workers exposed to minor concentrations of the chemical substances, which should be taken into account in diagnosis, prognosis, treatment and out-patient observation.
Octylisothiazolinone is a biocide that has been reported as a moderate, but rare contact allergen.
To investigate the occurrence of octylisothiazolinone contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis diagnosed and registered in the Allergen Bank at Odense University Hospital during the past 20 years. Octylisothiazolinone has been used for targeted testing only.
All octylisothiazolinone-patch test results registered in the Allergen Bank between January 1992 and February 2012 were analyzed.
A total of 20 out of 648 patients patch tested with octylisothiazolinone had positive reactions. The majority of the patients (90%) with relevant sensitizations to octylisothiazolinone had been exposed in occupational settings and most patients were painters.
Women often develop malignant mesothelioma (MM) without occupational asbestos exposure. Northern Jutland has a high prevalence of MM due to previously high occupational exposures to asbestos. The aim of this study was to elucidate a possible domestic exposure to asbestos through first-degree relatives in women who develop MM.
This was a retrospective study in women with MM of the pleura. A total of 30 women were diagnosed with and treated for MM in Northern Jutland from 1996 to 2012. In all, 24 women were included. Demographic data, subtype of MM, time from first hospital contact to diagnosis, survival and information on occupational and domestic exposure to asbestos were obtained from hospital records.
A total of 12.5% of the study population were primarily exposed to asbestos. 46% had domestic exposure to asbestos through their husbands or sons. The median age of the study population was 66.5 years. In all, 75% suffered from the epitheloid subtype, 12.5% from the biphasic and 8.4% from the sarcomatoid subtype. Time from first hospital contact to diagnosis was one month and the median survival time was 12 months. The 1- and 5- year-survival were 58% and 0%, respectively.
Nearly 50% of the women affected by MM have been domestically exposed to asbestos through first-degree relatives.
There is some evidence to suggest that workers in animal-related occupations are at increased risk of developing lymphohematopoietic cancers. This study aimed to examine the risk of leukemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), and multiple myeloma associated with occupational exposure to animals.
We used data from a multi-site, population-based case-control study using mailed questionnaires which had taken place in eight of ten Canadian provinces, during 1994-1998. There were 1023 leukemia cases, 1577 NHL cases, and 324 multiple myeloma cases (all histologically confirmed) and 4688 population-based controls. Animal-related occupations were identified from a lifetime occupational history. Subjects in animal-related jobs were compared with others using logistic regression for the risk of leukemia, NHL, and multiple myeloma.
Compared to subjects without occupational exposure to animals, occupational exposure to beef cattle increased the risks of leukemia (odds ratio (OR) 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-3.3) and NHL (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1-2.9). No other animal exposure was consistently associated with risk of lymphohematopoietic cancer. An unexpected protective association was observed between work as a fisherman and leukemia (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.8) and NHL (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.4-0.9).
This population-based case-control study found that those individuals working in occupations associated with beef cattle are at increased risk for developing leukemia and lymphoma while those working in occupations requiring the handling of fish are at decreased risk of leukemia and lymphoma.
It has been suggested that the well known associations between smoking and cancer may in part reflect inadequately controlled confounding due to occupational exposures. The purpose of the present analysis is to describe the association between cigarette smoking and both lung and bladder cancers, taking into account the potential confounding effects of over 300 covariates, most of which represent occupational exposures. A population-based case-control study was undertaken in Montreal to investigate the associations between a large variety of environmental and occupational exposures, on the one hand, and several types of cancer, on the other. Interviews were carried out with male incident cases of several sites of cancer, including 857 lung cancers and 484 bladder cancers. A group of non-smoking-related cancers, comprising 1,707 interviewed subjects, was used as one control group. Additionally, 533 population controls were interviewed and constituted a second control group. Interview information included detailed lifetime smoking histories, job histories, and other potential confounders. Each job history was reviewed by a team of experts who translated it into a history of occupational exposures. These occupational exposures, as well as nonoccupational covariates, were treated as potential confounders in the analysis of cigarette smoking effects. Regardless of whether population controls or cancer controls were used, the odds ratio (OR) between smoking and lung cancer (ranging from 12 to 16 for ever vs never smokers) was not materially affected by adjustment for occupational exposures. The odds ratios for bladder cancer (ranging from 2 to 3) were also unaffected by confounding due to occupational exposures.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
The natural history and etiology of malignant mesothelioma (MM) is already thoroughly described in the literature, but there is still debate on prognostic factors, and details of asbestos exposure and possible context with clinical and demographic data, have not been investigated comprehensively.
Description of patients with MM, focusing on exposure, occupation, survival and prognostic factors.
Review of medical records of patients with MM from 1984 to 2010 from a Danish Occupational clinic. Survival was estimated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and prognostic factors were identified by Cox regression analysis.
110 (90.2%) patients were male, and 12 (9.8%) were female. The median (interquartile rang [IQR]) age was 65 (13) years. Pleural MM was seen in 101 (82.8%) patients, and peritoneal in 11 (9.0%); two (1.6%) had MM to tunica vaginalis testis, and eight (6.6%) to multiple serosal surfaces. We found 68 (55.7%) epithelial tumors, 26 (21.3%) biphasic, and 6 (4.9%) sarcomatoid. 12 (9.8%) patients received tri-modal therapy, 66 (54.1%) received one-/two-modality treatment, and 36 (29.5%) received palliative care. Asbestos exposure was confirmed in 107 (91.0%) patients, probable in four (3.3%), and unidentifiable in 11 (9.0%). The median (IQR) latency was 42 (12.5) years. Exposure predominantly occurred in shipyards. The median overall survival was 1.05 (95% CI: 0.96-1.39) years; 5-year survival was 5.0% (95% CI: 2.0%-13.0%). Female sex, good WHO performance status (PS), epithelial histology and tri-modal treatment were associated with a favorable prognosis.
MM continuously presents a difficult task diagnostically and therapeutically, and challenges occupational physicians with regard to identification and characterization of asbestos exposure.
Although associations have been found between levels of ambient airborne particles and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general population, little is known about possible cardiovascular effects from high exposure to particles in underground railway systems. This study investigates risk markers for CVD in employees exposed to particles in the Stockholm underground system.
79 workers (54 men and 25 women) in the Stockholm underground were investigated between November 2004 and March 2005. All were non-smokers aged 25-50 years. Three exposure groups were delineated: 29 platform workers with high exposure to particles, 29 train drivers with medium exposure and 21 ticket sellers with low exposure (control group). A baseline blood sample was taken after 2 non-working days, and a second sample after 2 working days, for analysis of levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6, fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor and factor VII. The study investigated changes in plasma concentrations between sample 1 and sample 2, and differences in average concentrations between the groups.
No changes between sample 1 and 2 were found that could be attributed to particle exposure. However, the highly exposed platform workers were found to have higher plasma concentrations of PAI-1 and hs-CRP than the ticket sellers and train drivers. This suggests that particle exposure could have a long-term inflammatory effect. These differences remained for PAI-1 in the comparison between platform workers and ticket sellers after adjusting for body mass index.
Employees who were highly exposed to airborne particles in the Stockholm underground tended to have elevated levels of risk markers for CVD relative to employees with low exposure. However, the differences observed cannot definitely be linked to particle exposure as such.
The etiology of breast cancer is not fully understood. Environmental and occupational exposures may contribute to breast cancer risk.
We linked 324 job titles from the 1970 census of 892,591 Finnish women with incidence of breast cancer (23,638 cases) during 1971-1995. We converted job titles to 31 chemical and two ergonomic agents through a measurement-based, period-specific, national job-exposure matrix. Poisson regression models were fit to the data, with adjustment for birth cohort, follow-up period, socioeconomic status, mean number of children, mean age at first delivery, and turnover rate.
For premenopausal breast cancer, medium/high level of occupational exposure to ionizing radiation was associated with a standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of 1.3 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7-2.5; trend P = 0.03). For postmenopausal breast cancer, we found on SIR of 1.2 (1.1-1.3) for low level and 1.4 (1.1-1.8) for medium/high level of ionizing radiation (trend P = 0.001); and an SIR 1.3 (1.1-1.7) for medium/high levels of both asbestos and man-made vitreous fibers. Aromatic hydrocarbon solvents showed a significant trend for a modest excess of postmenopausal breast cancer.
Our study indicates that occupational exposure to ionizing radiation may be associated with an increased risk of female breast cancer. High-quality studies on environmental and occupational etiology of breast cancer are needed for further elucidation of risk factors.
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common tumor among women, and the causes remain almost unknown apart from changes in the reproductive pattern. Based on experimental evidence, some organic solvents may have carcinogenic properties to the female breast. METHODS: We used a comprehensive national data linkage to examine the adjusted breast cancer risk among relatively young (20-55 years) Danish women employed in industries with extensive use of organic solvents (i.e., the metal product, wood and furniture, printing, chemical, and textile and clothing industries). Relative risks (OR) were estimated from a matched case-control study on 7,802 women with breast cancer (1970-1989). Potential exposure to organic solvents was accessed from the duration of employment within the selected industries and reconstructed from the files of a nationwide compulsory pension fund. Socioeconomic status and the individual reproductive pattern were obtained from the central person registry. RESULTS: The adjusted OR for breast cancer after 15 years latency was increased in each of the selected industrial groups (from 1.4 to 2.4). For the entire group with over 10 years of employment, the OR was significantly elevated (twofold). CONCLUSIONS: This study supports the observation that long-term occupational exposure to organic solvents may play a role in breast cancer risk. However, some residual confounding may exist, and further studies are required to identify specific carcinogenic organic solvents.