A unique Institute of Railway Hygiene was created 70 years ago in Russia, one of the major railway countries in the world. Since then the Institute's staffers have carried out huge work on improvement of railway workers' health, prevention of their exposure to noise, unfavorable microclimate, vibration and other occupational hazards. Significant contribution into the world occupational hygiene was made by such Institute's professionals as S.F. Kazansky, P.I. Nikitin, A.M. Volkov and others.