On the basis of the analysis of the sanitary and hygienic conditions, epidemiology of a mass disease, clinical picture of the disease during a 6-month trial period the problems of differentiated diagnosis of infectious and toxic processes, examination of capacity for work, the course of diseases were studied in 219 workers who had had legionellosis. The participation of various specialists in the analysis of analogous cases at the enterprises with chemical environmental contamination and developed systems of air conditioning was considered necessary.
This study investigated whether chronic airflow limitation and rapid decline in pulmonary function were associated with peak exposures to ozone and other irritant gases in pulp mills. Bleachery workers potentially exposed to irritant gassings (n = 178) from three Swedish pulp mills, and a comparison group of workers not exposed to irritant gassings (n = 54) from two paper mills, were studied. Baseline surveys occurred in 1995-1996, with follow-up surveys in 1998-1999. Participants performed spirometry and answered questions regarding ozone, chlorine dioxide (ClO2), and sulphur dioxide (SO2) gassings. From regression models controlling for potential confounders, declines in both the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) (-24 mL x yr(-1)) and the forced vital capacity (FVC) (-19 mL x yr(-1)) were associated with ClO2/SO2 gassings. At follow-up, the prevalence of chronic airflow limitation (i.e. FEV1/FVC less than the lower limit of normal) was elevated for participants with only pre-baseline ozone gassings and with both pre-baseline and interval ozone gassings, after controlling for potential confounders. These findings suggest that obstructive effects among bleachery workers are associated with ozone gassings, and that adverse effects on spirometry might also accompany chlorine dioxide/sulphur dioxide gassings. Peak exposures to irritant gases in pulp mills should be prevented.
Occurrence of airway irritation among indoor swimming pool personnel was investigated. The aims of this study were to assess trichloramine exposure levels and exhaled nitric oxide in relation to the prevalence of airway symptoms in swimming pool facilities and to determine protein effects in the upper respiratory tract.
The presence of airway symptoms related to work was examined in 146 individuals working at 46 indoor swimming pool facilities. Levels of trichloramine, as well as exhaled nitric oxide, were measured in five facilities with high prevalence of airway irritation and four facilities with no airway irritation among the personnel. Nasal lavage fluid was collected, and protein profiles were determined by a proteomic approach.
17 % of the swimming pool personnel reported airway symptoms related to work. The levels of trichloramine in the swimming pool facilities ranged from 0.04 to 0.36 mg/m(3). There was no covariance between trichloramine levels, exhaled nitric oxide and prevalence of airway symptoms. Protein profiling of the nasal lavage fluid showed that the levels alpha-1-antitrypsin and lactoferrin were significantly higher, and S100-A8 was significantly lower in swimming pool personnel.
This study confirms the occurrence of airway irritation among indoor swimming pool personnel. Our results indicate altered levels of innate immunity proteins in the upper airways that may pose as potential biomarkers. However, swimming pool facilities with high prevalence of airway irritation could not be explained by higher trichloramine exposure levels. Further studies are needed to clarify the environmental factors in indoor swimming pools that cause airway problems and affect the immune system.
Average age at first disablement status by primary diagnosis of occupational diseases reaches 51.8 +/- 4.1 years. Medical and social examination proves II grade disablement in 15% of individuals. Disablement due to occupational diseases is characterized by high stability (60.5 out of 100 repeatedly examined per year). The authors revealed statistically significant (p
The authors elaborated a medical and ecologic questionnaire for specific history. The questionnaire was applied to express-evaluation of public health state and environmental factors in the certain settlement. The health state was proved to be influenced significantly by occupational conditions, hardiness and intensity of work, psychologic climate. The most hazardous environmental factors are: unsatisfactory quality of drinkable water, air pollution and traffic noise. The lifestyle of the population examined is strongly associated with bad habits (smoking, short sleep, alcohol abuse).
A trend towards a growing number of emergency situations at industrial enterprises has been recently traced throughout the world. The main reasons of such phenomenon are: a comprehensive use of highly dangerous technologies and materials; large-scale violations of the operational rules and norms; and an inadmissibly high wear-and-tear of the main production funds in economic branches with extra risk. The world experience is indicative of a high degree of danger related with exploiting the natural-gas fields with a high content of sulfur compounds. The occurrence of emergency situations in the mentioned fields is accompanied by development of acute and sub-acute toxic effects in the workers and population. It necessitated, recently, an elaboration of a concept of a relative safety, in view of an unfavorable impact produced by chemical substances in emergencies, and an elaboration of methods applicable to the evaluation of emergency regulations.
The article covers differential diagnostic features of pulmonary tuberculosis and pneumoconiosis in workers engaged into mullite refractories production. The authors suggest that the disease courses as a new form of lung disorder--mullitosis.
A competent assessment of causal relationships in the case of work-related lung disorders depends on correct diagnosis, a detailed occupational history and updated epidemiological knowledge about causal relationships, obtained from the literature. Assessments for purposes of compensation demand, in addition, an explicit choice of methods for calculating causes, before a meaningful attempt can be made to weight the various factors in and outside the working environment. If adequate epidemiological knowledge is available, the causal probability, based on the etiological fraction among the exposed persons (attributable risk) may be a useful tool for apportioning the different causal factors.
To assess the extent of indoor air problems in office environments in Finland.
Complaints and symptoms related to the indoor environment experienced by office workers were collected from 122 workplaces in 1996-99 by using the modified Indoor Air Questionnaire established by the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health. Altogether 11 154 employees took part in the survey.
The most common problems were dry air (35% of the respondents), stuffy air (34%), dust or dirt in the indoor environment (25%), and draught (22%). The most common work related symptoms were irritated, stuffy, or runny nose (20%), itching, burning, or irritation of the eyes (17%), and fatigue (16%). Women reported indoor air problems and work related symptoms more often than men. Allergic persons and smokers reported indoor air problems more often, and experienced work related symptoms more often than non-allergic persons and non-smokers.
The complaints and work related symptoms associated with indoor air problems were common in office workers. The present questionnaire is a suitable tool for the occupational health personnel in investigating indoor air problems and the data of the survey can be used as a reference when the results of a survey at work are being analysed.