The aim of the study was to assess the feasibility of and possible selection to attend in colorectal cancer screening.
During the years 1979-1980, 1 785 men and women (born in 1917-1929) were invited to a pilot screening project for colorectal cancer. The screening method used was a guaiac-based faecal occult blood test repeated once if the initial test was positive.
Compliance was 69% and the test was positive in 19% of those attending. In a record linkage with the Finnish Cancer Registry, 47 colorectal cancer cases and 24 deaths from colorectal cancer were observed by the end of 2004. In all, the particular test method was not regarded specific enough for population screening. There was, however, no difference in cancer incidence between those who complied and those who did not when compared to the general population of same age and gender.
Compliance was found high enough to make screening feasible and there was no self selection of persons with low cancer risk to attend screening.
Cancer of the colon is the second most common malignancy in North America and screening methods are needed for diagnosing the lesions at an early stage. Faecal occult blood screening is a method of secondary prevention which is particularly adaptable to the family practice setting. In order to test the feasibility of using this test in family practice, 16 family physicians participated in a trial screening programme using the Hemoccult II test. During the two-month trial 776 patients over 40 years of age were screened; 19 of the tests were positive but in two cases patients were thought to have failed to follow dietary and medical restrictions. Of the 17 patients with verified positive tests, further investigation showed five patients had neoplastic disease and three of these had malignant disease. The detection rate for cancer of the colon using the Hemoccult II test was therefore 3/776, equivalent to 3.9 per 1000 cases screened. By narrowing the age range for screening patients to between 45 and 75 years, the time involved to screen the population at risk could be decreased.
A survey is given of colorectal polyps detected in a prospective randomized screening study with the fecal occult blood test. It is demonstrated that colonoscopy in persons with positive Hemoccult-II tests results in detection of and removal of a higher number of adenomas than among controls. The strategy may, therefore, possibly be followed by a reduction of the incidence of colorectal cancer. Screen-detected adenomas were most often in males and were larger than among controls; they were most often in the sigmoid colon, whereas the rectum was the most frequent location for adenomas in controls. Eight percent of persons with screen-detected adenomas had some symptoms, which could be referred to adenomas, in contrast to 50% among controls. Hyperplastic polyps served as markers for adenomas in persons with positive Hemoccult-II as well as in controls with adenomas detected by colonoscopy; however, most persons with adenomas had no hyperplastic polyps. Endoscopic polypectomy did not result in any severe complications, but surgical removal in 2 of 22 patients proved fatal. The results presented are compared with those of other prospective randomized trials. The optimistic view--that the incidence of cancer may be reduced by polypectomy in persons with positive Hemoccult-II tests--stresses the importance of securing optimal colonoscopy service.
To identify correlates of adherence to colorectal cancer (CRC) screening guidelines in average-risk Canadians.
2003 Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 2.1 respondents who were at least 50 years old, without past or present CRC and living in Ontario, Newfoundland, Saskatchewan, and British Columbia were included. Outcomes, defined according to current CRC screening guidelines, included adherence to: i) fecal occult blood test (FOBT) (in prior 2 years), ii) endoscopy (colonoscopy/sigmoidoscopy) (prior 10 years), and iii) adherence to CRC screening guidelines, defined as either (i) or (ii). Generalized estimating equations regression was employed to identify correlates of the study outcomes.
Of the 17,498 respondents, 70% were non-adherent CRC screening to guidelines. Specifically, 85% and 79% were non-adherent to FOBT and endoscopy, respectively. Correlates for all outcomes were: having a regular physician (OR = (i) 2.68; (ii) 1.91; (iii) 2.39), getting a flu shot (OR = (i) 1.59; (ii) 1.51; (iii) 1.55), and having a chronic condition (OR = (i) 1.32; (ii) 1.48; (iii) 1.43). Greater physical activity, higher consumption of fruits and vegetables and smoking cessation were each associated with at least 1 outcome. Self-perceived stress was modestly associated with increased odds of adherence to endoscopy and to CRC screening guidelines (OR = (ii) 1.07; (iii) 1.06, respectively).
Healthy lifestyle behaviors and factors that motivate people to seek health care were associated with adherence, implying that invitations for CRC screening should come from sources that are independent of physicians, such as the government, in order to reduce disparities in CRC screening.
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We conducted a survey of a representative sample of all primary care physicians in the province of Québec to ascertain their patterns of preventive practice with respect to cancer in four anatomical sites: breast, colon-rectum, cervix, and lung. A stratified random sample of 430 physicians in general practice was interviewed individually and weighted population estimates derived. Physicians report teaching breast self-examination to their patients (96 per cent), performing breast examination (99 per cent), taking pap tests routinely (91 per cent), and pursuing anti-smoking counseling (98 per cent). Very few of them report submitting their patients over 50 years of age to annual mammography (8 per cent) or checking for occult blood in stools in patients over 45 years of age (15 per cent). Many still use routine chest X-rays as an early detection measure of cancer of the lung (77 per cent); an estimated 41 per cent use sputum cytology for the same purpose. Preventive practices, when in-use, are carried out mainly in the context of major encounters with patients such as general check-ups. Less than 28 per cent of the population is estimated to be reached by this strategy for prevention. The unrealized potential for prevention through capitalizing on all encounters with primary care physicians is important, and should stimulate creative efforts to enhance preventive activities in medical practice.
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BACKGROUND: Few data exist regarding the epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infections in aboriginal, including the First Nations (Indian) or Inuit (Eskimo) populations of North America. We have previously found 95% of the adults in Wasagamack, a First Nations community in Northeastern Manitoba, Canada, are seropositive for H. pylori. We aimed to determine the age at acquisition of H. pylori among the children of this community, and if any association existed with stool occult blood or demographic factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We prospectively enrolled children resident in the Wasagamack First Nation in August 1999. A demographic questionnaire was administered. Stool was collected, frozen and batch analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for H. pylori antigen and for the presence of occult blood. Questionnaire data were analyzed and correlated with the presence or absence of H. pylori. RESULTS: 163 (47%) of the estimated 350 children aged 6 weeks to 12 years, resident in the community were enrolled. Stool was positive for H. pylori in 92 (56%). By the second year of life 67% were positive for H. pylori. The youngest to test positive was 6 weeks old. There was no correlation of a positive H. pylori status with gender, presence of pets, serum Hgb, or stool occult blood. Forty-three percent of H. pylori positive and 24% of H. pylori negative children were
BACKGROUND: This paper illustrates how data gathered from an existing screening programme against colorectal cancer can be used to produce new information on the natural history of colorectal cancer as well as the characteristics of the unhydrated Hemoccult II screening test. METHODS: A mathematical model is used, which on the basis of prevalence and interval incidence data from a randomized screening project initiated in Funen County, Denmark, estimates the sensitivity of the screening test and the sojourn time of the disease. RESULTS: The sensitivity of the Hemoccult is estimated at 62.1% and the mean sojourn time is estimated to be 2.1 years. CONCLUSIONS: The short sojourn time indicates that overall effectiveness of a Hemoccult II screening programme can be improved significantly by more frequent screening.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether appointments for screening timed in proximity to annual milestones (birthdays, Christmas and New Year) may be used as a strategy to improve attendance for screening for colorectal cancer. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial. SETTING: City of Oslo (urban) and Telemark county (urban and rural), Norway. PARTICIPANTS: 12,960 screened adults (64.7% of those invited). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Attendance rates for each week and month of assigned appointment. RESULTS: Attendance rates were significantly higher in December than the rest of the year (72.3% v 64.6%, P
Colorectal cancer screening reduces colorectal cancer incidence and mortality. This population-based study was conducted to evaluate (i) the association between subject factors and colorectal screening participation and (ii) the lifetime prevalence of colorectal screening among the general population of Ontario, Canada. Population-based controls were recruited by the Ontario Familial Colorectal Cancer Registry during 1998-2000. The 1944 persons completed an epidemiologic questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were computed and step-wise multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Overall, 23% of persons greater than 50 years of age reported ever having had colorectal cancer screening; 17% reported fecal occult blood test (FOBT), 6% sigmoidoscopy, and 4% colonoscopy. Family history of colorectal cancer, increased age, higher household income, and use of hormone replacement therapy (among women) were all significantly associated with ever having had colorectal cancer screening. The low prevalence of colorectal cancer screening among the target population suggests the need for an increased awareness of the public health importance of colorectal cancer screening.
Little is known about the major presenting features of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) in a population-based setting, especially regarding bleeding-related symptoms.
To determine the proportion of CRC patients presenting with bleeding-related symptoms, to compare bleeders and nonbleeders and to explore the role of anticoagulants in bleeders.
This was a nationwide, population-based, retrospective study, investigating all patients diagnosed with CRC in Iceland from 2008 to 2011. Bleeding-related symptoms were defined as overt bleeding, iron deficiency anaemia or a positive faecal occult blood test. Obstructive symptoms were defined as a confirmed diagnosis of ileus or dilated intestines on imaging.
Data were available for 472/496 (95%) patients, males 51%, mean age 69 (±13) years. In all, 348 (74%) patients had bleeding-related symptoms; of these 348 patients, 61% had overt bleeding. Bleeders were less likely than nonbleeders to have metastases at diagnosis, 19% vs. 34% (P