A total of 149 children, who spent an average of 13.8 months in Russian institutions, were transferred to Russian families of relatives and nonrelatives at an average age of 24.7 months. After residing in these families for at least 1 year (average = 43.2 months), parents reported on their attachment, indiscriminately friendly behavior, social-emotional competencies, problem behaviors, and effortful control when they were 1.5-10.7 years of age. They were compared to a sample of 83 Russian parents of noninstitutionalized children, whom they had reared from birth. Generally, institutionalized children were rated similarly to parent-reared children on most measures, consistent with substantial catch-up growth typically displayed by children after transitioning to families. However, institutionalized children were rated more poorly than parent-reared children on certain competencies in early childhood and some attentional skills. There were relatively few systematic differences associated with age at family placement or whether the families were relatives or nonrelatives. Russian parent-reared children were rated as having more problem behaviors than the US standardization sample, which raises cautions about using standards cross-culturally.
The study aimed to describe the quality of attachment in the sample of children living in St Petersburg (Russian Federation). Up to the present there were no studies on quality of attachment relationship among infants living in families in the Russian Federation (RF), including families living in St Petersburg. The study results have an important value for understanding of development of attachment patterns in a changing society with a previous history of being a totalitarian state. The St Petersburg sample consisted of 130 children, living in families, aged 11-16 months old (mean = 13.3 months). Children were living in largely normative low-risk families. The Strange Situation Procedure was used (Ainsworth Blehar, Waters, & Wall, 1978). The attachment categories were classified according to the criteria of the DMM model (Crittenden, 2002). Results presented show that 50% of children showed the complex strategies (pre-A3-4 compulsive caregiving and compliant, pre-C3-4 aggressive and feigned helpless, A/C). It was found that among a St Petersburg sample of families there was small number of children with secure attachment pattern and many children with complex attachment strategies.