BACKGROUND: We hypothesize that premenopausal endogenous estradiol may be associated with age at menarche and adult overweight and obesity, potentially contributing to breast cancer risk. METHODS: We assessed age at menarche by questionnaire among 204 healthy Norwegian women, aged 25-35 years. Measures of body composition included body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)), waist circumference (WC, cm), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and fat percentage dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, (DEXA). Daily salivary 17-beta-estradiol (E(2)) concentrations were collected throughout one entire menstrual cycle and assessed by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Linear regression analyses and linear mixed models for repeated measures were used and potential confounding factors and effect modifiers were tested. RESULTS: Among women with an early age at menarche (
Adiponectin is a novel polypeptide that is highly specific to adipose tissue. In contrast to other adipocytokines, adiponectin levels are decreased in obesity and associated comorbidities, such as type 2 diabetes. Decreased expression of adiponectin is correlated with insulin resistance. It has been suggested that several agents, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha, could mediate their effects on insulin metabolism through modulating adiponectin secretion from adipocytes. The mechanisms for the development of atherosclerotic vascular disease in obese individuals are largely unknown. Several findings support the interesting hypothesis that adiponectin could be a link between obesity and related atherosclerosis. First, adiponectin levels are lower in patients with coronary artery disease. Second, adiponectin modulates endothelial function and has an inhibitory effect on vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. Moreover, adiponectin is accumulated more preferably to the injured vascular wall than intact vessels and has been shown to suppress macrophage-to-foam cell transformation. Adiponectin may also be involved in the modulation of inflammation. Thiazolidinediones, antiatherogenic and other effects have been explained by their direct enhancing effect on adiponectin. In conclusion, adiponectin has anti-inflammatory and antiatherogeneic effects as well as multiple beneficial effects on metabolism. Therefore it is not a surprise that adiponectin therapy has been tested in animal models of obesity, and it has been shown to ameliorate hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia without inducing weight gain or even inducing weight loss in some studies. Unlike agents that exert their effects centrally, adiponectin's effects seem to be peripherally mediated. The evidence of an association between adiponectin and the metabolic and cardiovascular complications of obesity is growing all the time.
Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption is linked to weight gain and metabolic syndrome (MetS) components in children, but whether these associations are modified by excess weight and glucose tolerance status in children is not known.
The objective of this study was to examine the cross-sectional associations between SSB intake and MetS components among children above and below the 85th body mass index (BMI) percentile and those with and without impaired glucose tolerance (IGT).
Data were from the QUébec Adiposity and Lifestyle InvesTigation in Youth study (2005-2008). Caucasian children aged 8-10 years (n?=?632) were recruited from 1040 primary schools in Québec, Canada. SSB consumption was assessed by three 24-h dietary recalls, body fat mass by dual-energy absorptiometry, physical activity by 7-d accelerometer. Multivariate linear regressions were used, with age, sex, fat mass index and physical activity as covariates, including waist circumference (WC), systolic blood pressure (SBP), concentrations of triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) as outcome variables.
Among overweight children, a 100-mL higher SSB consumption was associated with a 0.1-unit higher HOMA-IR (P?=?0.009) and a 1.1-mm?Hg higher SBP (P?=?0.001). In children with IGT, a 100-mL higher SSB consumption was associated with a 1.4-mm?Hg higher SBP and a 4.0-cm higher WC (P?
Age at adiposity rebound (AR) is associated with obesity and Type 2 Diabetes in adults. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of age at AR in adult fat mass, fat distribution and pubertal timing for a Swedish cohort.
This is a retrospective cohort study. Detailed growth charts were retrieved for the men participating in the population-based GOOD (Gothenburg Osteoporosis and Obesity Determinants) study (n=573). Body composition was analysed using dual X-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography at 18-20 years of age. Age and BMI at AR were calculated using pediatric growth charts and AR was defined as the lowest BMI between 3 and 9 years of age.
Subjects were divided into early (age at AR below 5.4 years of age), middle (age at AR 5.4 to 6.8 years of age) and late (age at AR after 6.8 years of age) age at AR tertiles. Subjects in the early age at AR tertile had higher young adult BMI (+8%), whole body fat mass (+34%) and amount of subcutaneous adipose tissue (+61%) than the subjects in the middle and late tertiles (p
Cites: Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2000 Dec;24(12):1628-3511126216
Latent autoimmune diabetes (LADA) is a common form of diabetes, yet the risk factors are poorly characterised. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of age, overweight and physical activity on the risk of LADA.
We analysed age, overweight and physical inactivity and the incidence of LADA in 38,800 men and women, observed between 1984 and 1986 and 1995 and 1997 as part of the Nord-Tr?ndelag Health Survey. We also compared such factors with incident cases of type 2 (n = 738) and 'classic' type 1 diabetes (n = 18). Patients classified as LADA (n = 81) had antibodies against GAD and were insulin independent at diagnosis.
The proportion of those who were older, overweight and inactive before diagnosis was almost identical in LADA and type 2 diabetes patients. BMI >or=30 kg/m(2) was strongly associated with LADA incidence (relative risk [RR] = 15.0, 95% CI 7.51-29.97). The association was similar for type 2 diabetes (RR = 15.37, 95% CI 12.07-19.57) but not for type 1 diabetes. Similarly, age (>or=60 years) was an important risk factor for LADA (RR = 5.62, 95% CI 2.36-13.4) as well as for type 2 diabetes (RR = 6.78, 95% CI 5.07-9.06) in contrast to type 1 diabetes. Physical inactivity was associated with an increased risk of both LADA and type 2 diabetes.
This study suggests that increased age, overweight and physical inactivity are as strong risk factors for LADA as for type 2 diabetes. These findings suggest a role for insulin resistance in the pathogenesis of LADA.
The effect of altitude of residence on the growth status of 11,454 indigenous school children 6-14 years of age in Oaxaca, southern Mexico, was examined. Indicators of living conditions (human development index [HDI], index of community nutritional risk [INR], index of marginalization [IM], index of relative isolation [II]) were regressed on z-scores for height, weight and BMI, and the residuals were regressed on altitude of residence (km). Independent of other environmental conditions, altitude negatively affected height by approximately -0.07 z-scores per kilometer altitude above sea level. The estimated average decrease in stature was 0.92 cm per kilometer elevation. BMI was significantly increased, 1.2 units per kilometer elevation, consistent with earlier studies of growth status and altitude. In contrast, weight was not affected by altitude of residence. Approximately 36% of the reduction in height and 54% of the increase in BMI were due to altitude effects; the remaining changes in height and BMI were associated with environmental factors reflected in the indices of community well-being considered.
This study evaluated to what extent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and two types of bioimpedance analysis (BIA) yield similar results for body fat mass (FM) in men and women with different levels of obesity and physical activity (PA).
The study population consisted of 37-81-year-old Finnish people (82 men and 86 women). FM% was estimated using DXA (GE Lunar Prodigy) and two BIA devices (InBody (720) and Tanita BC 418 MA). Subjects were divided into normal, overweight, and obese groups on the basis of clinical cutoff points of BMI, and into low PA (LPA) and high PA (HPA) groups. Agreement between the devices was calculated by using the Bland-Altman analysis.
Compared to DXA, both BIA devices provided on average 2-6% lower values for FM% in normal BMI men, in women in all BMI categories, and in both genders in both HPA and LPA groups. In obese men, the differences were smaller. The two BIA devices provided similar means for groups. Differences between the two BIA devices with increasing FM% were a result of the InBody (720) not including age in their algorithm for estimating body composition.
BIA methods provided systematically lower values for FM than DXA. However, the differences depend on gender and body weight status pointing out the importance of considering these when identifying people with excess FM.
Ultrasound Clinic 4002, Department of Fetal Medicine, Rigshospitalet, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Hvidovre Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark. firstname.lastname@example.org
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between maternal weight gain and birth weight less than 3,000 g and greater than or equal to 4,000 g in underweight (body mass index [BMI] less than 19.8 kg/m(2)), normal weight (BMI 19.8-26.0 kg/m(2)), overweight (BMI 26.1-29.0 kg/m(2)), and obese (BMI greater than 29.0 kg/m(2)) women, with emphasis on the use of the American Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations in Denmark. METHODS: We analyzed data from 2,248 women with singleton, term pregnancies. The relationship between weight gain and risk of birth weight less than 3,000 g and greater than or equal to 4,000 g was examined in the four BMI groups, and use of IOM recommendations was tested by logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: We found an inverse relationship between maternal weight gain and the proportion of infants with a birth weight less than 3,000 g. Birth weight greater than or equal to 4,000 g increased with an increasing weight gain in underweight and normal-weight women, but the association was less apparent in overweight and obese women. Underweight women seemed to benefit from gaining more weight than recommended by the IOM, because the odds ratio (OR) of birth weight less than 3,000 g was 0.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.1-0.9) and the OR was 1.7 for birthweight greater than or equal to 4,000 g (95% CI 0.8-3.6). The normal-weight women had an increased risk of birth weight less than 3,000 g (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.5-3.7) if weight gain was below the recommended range, and the OR of birth weight greater than or equal to 4,000 g was 1.9 (95% CI 1.5-2.5) when the women gained more than recommended. CONCLUSION: The IOM recommendations may provide a basis for Danish recommendations to pregnant women, although the upper recommended limit for underweight women may have to be increased.
To examine the association between birth weight and glucose intolerance in adult Greenlandic Inuit.
We examined 1429 participants aged 18-56?years from two population-based, cross-sectional studies in Greenland with information on birth weight. Oral glucose tolerance tests, anthropometric measures and ultrasound of abdominal tissue were performed. Associations of birth weight with glucose markers were analysed using linear or logistic regressions. Spline analyses were conducted to examine u-shaped associations. Adjustments were done for age, sex, birth place, family history of diabetes, genetic admixture, TBC1D4 p.Arg684Ter carrier status, BMI and visceral adipose tissue.
The median birthweight was 3300?g and 3.9% had type 2 diabetes, T2DM. Spline analyses indicated overall linear associations. In fully adjusted analyses, an increase in birth weight of 1?kg was associated with a change in fasting plasma glucose of -0.06?mmol/L (95%CI: -0.11, -0.01), 2-h plasma glucose of -0.16?mmol/L (95%CI: -0.35, 0.02), HOMA-IR of -5.45% (95%CI: -10.34, -0.29), insulin sensitivity index of 7.04% (95%CI: 1.88, 12.45) and a trend towards a reduced risk of hyperglycaemia and T2DM, although statistically insignificant.
Birth weight was inversely associated with hepatic and peripheral insulin resistance independently of adult adiposity. Thus, the findings support low birth weight as a contributing factor for glucose intolerance in adult Inuit in Greenland.