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11th Annual International Symposium in Obesity: 'Obesity in a modern world: when pleasure meets homeostasis'.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature150244
Source
Int J Obes (Lond). 2009 Jun;33 Suppl 2:S1-2
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2009
Author
D. Richard
P. Boisvert
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Medicine, Centre de recherche de I'Institut de cardiologie et de pneumologie de Québec, Université Laval, Québec City, Québec, Canada. Denis.Richard@crhl.ulaval.ca
Source
Int J Obes (Lond). 2009 Jun;33 Suppl 2:S1-2
Date
Jun-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Congresses as topic
Female
Homeostasis
Humans
Male
Obesity - physiopathology - psychology
Philosophy
Quebec
Reward
PubMed ID
19528972 View in PubMed
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17-beta-estradiol in relation to age at menarche and adult obesity in premenopausal women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature86676
Source
Hum Reprod. 2008 Apr;23(4):919-27
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2008
Author
Emaus A.
Espetvedt S.
Veierød M B
Ballard-Barbash R.
Furberg A-S
Ellison P T
Jasienska G.
Hjartåker A.
Thune I.
Author Affiliation
Department of Oncology, Ullevål University Hospital, 0407 Oslo, Norway. aina.emaus@medisin.uio.no
Source
Hum Reprod. 2008 Apr;23(4):919-27
Date
Apr-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Body mass index
Breast Neoplasms
Estradiol - analysis - physiology
Female
Humans
Menarche - physiology
Menstrual Cycle - physiology
Norway
Obesity - physiopathology
Premenopause
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Saliva - chemistry
Waist-Hip Ratio
Abstract
BACKGROUND: We hypothesize that premenopausal endogenous estradiol may be associated with age at menarche and adult overweight and obesity, potentially contributing to breast cancer risk. METHODS: We assessed age at menarche by questionnaire among 204 healthy Norwegian women, aged 25-35 years. Measures of body composition included body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)), waist circumference (WC, cm), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and fat percentage dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, (DEXA). Daily salivary 17-beta-estradiol (E(2)) concentrations were collected throughout one entire menstrual cycle and assessed by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Linear regression analyses and linear mixed models for repeated measures were used and potential confounding factors and effect modifiers were tested. RESULTS: Among women with an early age at menarche (
PubMed ID
18227106 View in PubMed
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Adiponectin: a link between excess adiposity and associated comorbidities?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature47470
Source
J Mol Med. 2002 Nov;80(11):696-702
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2002
Author
Olavi Ukkola
Merja Santaniemi
Author Affiliation
Department of Internal Medicine and Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, Kajaanintie 50/P.O. Box 5000, 90220 Oulu, Finland. olavi.ukkola@oulu.fi
Source
J Mol Med. 2002 Nov;80(11):696-702
Date
Nov-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipocytes - physiology
Adiponectin
Adipose Tissue - physiology
Comorbidity
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - physiopathology
Humans
Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
Obesity - physiopathology
Proteins - physiology
Abstract
Adiponectin is a novel polypeptide that is highly specific to adipose tissue. In contrast to other adipocytokines, adiponectin levels are decreased in obesity and associated comorbidities, such as type 2 diabetes. Decreased expression of adiponectin is correlated with insulin resistance. It has been suggested that several agents, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha, could mediate their effects on insulin metabolism through modulating adiponectin secretion from adipocytes. The mechanisms for the development of atherosclerotic vascular disease in obese individuals are largely unknown. Several findings support the interesting hypothesis that adiponectin could be a link between obesity and related atherosclerosis. First, adiponectin levels are lower in patients with coronary artery disease. Second, adiponectin modulates endothelial function and has an inhibitory effect on vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. Moreover, adiponectin is accumulated more preferably to the injured vascular wall than intact vessels and has been shown to suppress macrophage-to-foam cell transformation. Adiponectin may also be involved in the modulation of inflammation. Thiazolidinediones, antiatherogenic and other effects have been explained by their direct enhancing effect on adiponectin. In conclusion, adiponectin has anti-inflammatory and antiatherogeneic effects as well as multiple beneficial effects on metabolism. Therefore it is not a surprise that adiponectin therapy has been tested in animal models of obesity, and it has been shown to ameliorate hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia without inducing weight gain or even inducing weight loss in some studies. Unlike agents that exert their effects centrally, adiponectin's effects seem to be peripherally mediated. The evidence of an association between adiponectin and the metabolic and cardiovascular complications of obesity is growing all the time.
PubMed ID
12436346 View in PubMed
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Adiposity and glucose intolerance exacerbate components of metabolic syndrome in children consuming sugar-sweetened beverages: QUALITY cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature118751
Source
Pediatr Obes. 2013 Aug;8(4):284-93
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2013
Author
J W Wang
S. Mark
M. Henderson
J. O'Loughlin
A. Tremblay
J. Wortman
G. Paradis
K. Gray-Donald
Author Affiliation
School of Dietetics and Human Nutrition, McGill University, Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, Québec, Canada.
Source
Pediatr Obes. 2013 Aug;8(4):284-93
Date
Aug-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adiposity - drug effects - physiology
Beverages - adverse effects
Blood Pressure - physiology
Child
Cohort Studies
Cross-Sectional Studies
Dietary Carbohydrates - adverse effects - pharmacology
Drinking Behavior - physiology
Female
Glucose Intolerance - physiopathology
Humans
Insulin Resistance - physiology
Linear Models
Male
Metabolic Syndrome X - physiopathology
Overweight - physiopathology
Pediatric Obesity - physiopathology
Quebec
Abstract
Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption is linked to weight gain and metabolic syndrome (MetS) components in children, but whether these associations are modified by excess weight and glucose tolerance status in children is not known.
The objective of this study was to examine the cross-sectional associations between SSB intake and MetS components among children above and below the 85th body mass index (BMI) percentile and those with and without impaired glucose tolerance (IGT).
Data were from the QUébec Adiposity and Lifestyle InvesTigation in Youth study (2005-2008). Caucasian children aged 8-10 years (n?=?632) were recruited from 1040 primary schools in Québec, Canada. SSB consumption was assessed by three 24-h dietary recalls, body fat mass by dual-energy absorptiometry, physical activity by 7-d accelerometer. Multivariate linear regressions were used, with age, sex, fat mass index and physical activity as covariates, including waist circumference (WC), systolic blood pressure (SBP), concentrations of triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) as outcome variables.
Among overweight children, a 100-mL higher SSB consumption was associated with a 0.1-unit higher HOMA-IR (P?=?0.009) and a 1.1-mm?Hg higher SBP (P?=?0.001). In children with IGT, a 100-mL higher SSB consumption was associated with a 1.4-mm?Hg higher SBP and a 4.0-cm higher WC (P?
PubMed ID
23172617 View in PubMed
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Age at adiposity rebound is associated with fat mass in young adult males-the GOOD study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature118817
Source
PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e49404
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Claes Ohlsson
Mattias Lorentzon
Ensio Norjavaara
Jenny M Kindblom
Author Affiliation
Center for Bone and Arthritis Research, Institute of Medicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy at Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
Source
PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e49404
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Absorptiometry, Photon
Adipose Tissue - physiopathology
Age Factors
Anthropometry
Body Composition - physiology
Body mass index
Child
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Growth Charts
Humans
Leptin - blood
Male
Obesity - physiopathology
Odds Ratio
Puberty - physiology
Retrospective Studies
Sweden - epidemiology
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Young Adult
Abstract
Age at adiposity rebound (AR) is associated with obesity and Type 2 Diabetes in adults. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of age at AR in adult fat mass, fat distribution and pubertal timing for a Swedish cohort.
This is a retrospective cohort study. Detailed growth charts were retrieved for the men participating in the population-based GOOD (Gothenburg Osteoporosis and Obesity Determinants) study (n=573). Body composition was analysed using dual X-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography at 18-20 years of age. Age and BMI at AR were calculated using pediatric growth charts and AR was defined as the lowest BMI between 3 and 9 years of age.
Subjects were divided into early (age at AR below 5.4 years of age), middle (age at AR 5.4 to 6.8 years of age) and late (age at AR after 6.8 years of age) age at AR tertiles. Subjects in the early age at AR tertile had higher young adult BMI (+8%), whole body fat mass (+34%) and amount of subcutaneous adipose tissue (+61%) than the subjects in the middle and late tertiles (p
Notes
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Cites: J Bone Miner Res. 2006 May;21(5):790-516734395
Cites: Pediatrics. 2006 Sep;118(3):e594-60116950951
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Cites: Pediatrics. 1998 Mar;101(3):E59481024
Cites: Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1999 Apr;23(4):348-5410340811
Cites: J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999 Jul;84(7):2336-4110404799
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Cites: Lancet. 2000 Dec 16;356(9247):2027-811145485
PubMed ID
23166661 View in PubMed
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Age, overweight and physical inactivity increase the risk of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults: results from the Nord-Tr√łndelag health study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature166623
Source
Diabetologia. 2007 Jan;50(1):55-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2007
Author
S. Carlsson
K. Midthjell
M Y Tesfamarian
V. Grill
Author Affiliation
Division of Epidemiology, Stockholm Centre of Public Health, Stockholm, Sweden. sofia.carlsson@ki.se
Source
Diabetologia. 2007 Jan;50(1):55-8
Date
Jan-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aging - physiology
Cohort Studies
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 - epidemiology - physiopathology
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - epidemiology - physiopathology
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Health Surveys
Humans
Incidence
Insulin Resistance - physiology
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Motor Activity - physiology
Norway
Obesity - physiopathology
Prospective Studies
Risk factors
Abstract
Latent autoimmune diabetes (LADA) is a common form of diabetes, yet the risk factors are poorly characterised. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of age, overweight and physical activity on the risk of LADA.
We analysed age, overweight and physical inactivity and the incidence of LADA in 38,800 men and women, observed between 1984 and 1986 and 1995 and 1997 as part of the Nord-Tr?ndelag Health Survey. We also compared such factors with incident cases of type 2 (n = 738) and 'classic' type 1 diabetes (n = 18). Patients classified as LADA (n = 81) had antibodies against GAD and were insulin independent at diagnosis.
The proportion of those who were older, overweight and inactive before diagnosis was almost identical in LADA and type 2 diabetes patients. BMI >or=30 kg/m(2) was strongly associated with LADA incidence (relative risk [RR] = 15.0, 95% CI 7.51-29.97). The association was similar for type 2 diabetes (RR = 15.37, 95% CI 12.07-19.57) but not for type 1 diabetes. Similarly, age (>or=60 years) was an important risk factor for LADA (RR = 5.62, 95% CI 2.36-13.4) as well as for type 2 diabetes (RR = 6.78, 95% CI 5.07-9.06) in contrast to type 1 diabetes. Physical inactivity was associated with an increased risk of both LADA and type 2 diabetes.
This study suggests that increased age, overweight and physical inactivity are as strong risk factors for LADA as for type 2 diabetes. These findings suggest a role for insulin resistance in the pathogenesis of LADA.
PubMed ID
17096113 View in PubMed
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Altitude effects on growth of indigenous children in Oaxaca, Southern Mexico.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature108354
Source
Am J Phys Anthropol. 2013 Sep;152(1):1-10
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2013
Author
Bertis B Little
Robert M Malina
Maria Eugenia Pena Reyes
Guillermo Bali Chavez
Author Affiliation
Departments of Mathematics, Physics, and Engineering, and Division of Academic Affairs, Tarleton State University, Stephenville, TX.
Source
Am J Phys Anthropol. 2013 Sep;152(1):1-10
Date
Sep-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Altitude
Analysis of Variance
Body Height
Body mass index
Body Weight
Child
Child Development - physiology
Female
Humans
Linear Models
Male
Mexico - epidemiology
Nutritional Status - physiology
Pediatric Obesity - physiopathology
Abstract
The effect of altitude of residence on the growth status of 11,454 indigenous school children 6-14 years of age in Oaxaca, southern Mexico, was examined. Indicators of living conditions (human development index [HDI], index of community nutritional risk [INR], index of marginalization [IM], index of relative isolation [II]) were regressed on z-scores for height, weight and BMI, and the residuals were regressed on altitude of residence (km). Independent of other environmental conditions, altitude negatively affected height by approximately -0.07 z-scores per kilometer altitude above sea level. The estimated average decrease in stature was 0.92 cm per kilometer elevation. BMI was significantly increased, 1.2 units per kilometer elevation, consistent with earlier studies of growth status and altitude. In contrast, weight was not affected by altitude of residence. Approximately 36% of the reduction in height and 54% of the increase in BMI were due to altitude effects; the remaining changes in height and BMI were associated with environmental factors reflected in the indices of community well-being considered.
PubMed ID
23900786 View in PubMed
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Assessing body composition with DXA and bioimpedance: effects of obesity, physical activity, and age.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature159040
Source
Obesity (Silver Spring). 2008 Mar;16(3):700-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2008
Author
Eszter Völgyi
Frances A Tylavsky
Arja Lyytikäinen
Harri Suominen
Markku Alén
Sulin Cheng
Author Affiliation
Department of Health Sciences, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
Source
Obesity (Silver Spring). 2008 Mar;16(3):700-5
Date
Mar-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Absorptiometry, Photon
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Algorithms
Body Composition
Body Fat Distribution
Electric Impedance
Exercise
Female
Finland
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Obesity - physiopathology
Overweight - physiopathology
Reproducibility of Results
Sex Factors
Abstract
This study evaluated to what extent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and two types of bioimpedance analysis (BIA) yield similar results for body fat mass (FM) in men and women with different levels of obesity and physical activity (PA).
The study population consisted of 37-81-year-old Finnish people (82 men and 86 women). FM% was estimated using DXA (GE Lunar Prodigy) and two BIA devices (InBody (720) and Tanita BC 418 MA). Subjects were divided into normal, overweight, and obese groups on the basis of clinical cutoff points of BMI, and into low PA (LPA) and high PA (HPA) groups. Agreement between the devices was calculated by using the Bland-Altman analysis.
Compared to DXA, both BIA devices provided on average 2-6% lower values for FM% in normal BMI men, in women in all BMI categories, and in both genders in both HPA and LPA groups. In obese men, the differences were smaller. The two BIA devices provided similar means for groups. Differences between the two BIA devices with increasing FM% were a result of the InBody (720) not including age in their algorithm for estimating body composition.
BIA methods provided systematically lower values for FM than DXA. However, the differences depend on gender and body weight status pointing out the importance of considering these when identifying people with excess FM.
PubMed ID
18239555 View in PubMed
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Association between maternal weight gain and birth weight.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature77536
Source
Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Jun;109(6):1309-15
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2007
Author
Rode Line
Hegaard Hanne K
Kjaergaard Hanne
Møller Lars F
Tabor Ann
Ottesen Bent
Author Affiliation
Ultrasound Clinic 4002, Department of Fetal Medicine, Rigshospitalet, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Hvidovre Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark. linerode@dadlnet.dk
Source
Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Jun;109(6):1309-15
Date
Jun-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Birth weight
Body mass index
Confidence Intervals
Denmark
Female
Gestational Age
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Life Style
Logistic Models
Male
Maternal Age
Maternal Nutrition Physiology - physiology
Obesity - physiopathology
Odds Ratio
Parity
Pregnancy
Pregnancy outcome
Risk factors
Thinness - physiopathology
Weight Gain - physiology
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between maternal weight gain and birth weight less than 3,000 g and greater than or equal to 4,000 g in underweight (body mass index [BMI] less than 19.8 kg/m(2)), normal weight (BMI 19.8-26.0 kg/m(2)), overweight (BMI 26.1-29.0 kg/m(2)), and obese (BMI greater than 29.0 kg/m(2)) women, with emphasis on the use of the American Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations in Denmark. METHODS: We analyzed data from 2,248 women with singleton, term pregnancies. The relationship between weight gain and risk of birth weight less than 3,000 g and greater than or equal to 4,000 g was examined in the four BMI groups, and use of IOM recommendations was tested by logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: We found an inverse relationship between maternal weight gain and the proportion of infants with a birth weight less than 3,000 g. Birth weight greater than or equal to 4,000 g increased with an increasing weight gain in underweight and normal-weight women, but the association was less apparent in overweight and obese women. Underweight women seemed to benefit from gaining more weight than recommended by the IOM, because the odds ratio (OR) of birth weight less than 3,000 g was 0.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.1-0.9) and the OR was 1.7 for birthweight greater than or equal to 4,000 g (95% CI 0.8-3.6). The normal-weight women had an increased risk of birth weight less than 3,000 g (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.5-3.7) if weight gain was below the recommended range, and the OR of birth weight greater than or equal to 4,000 g was 1.9 (95% CI 1.5-2.5) when the women gained more than recommended. CONCLUSION: The IOM recommendations may provide a basis for Danish recommendations to pregnant women, although the upper recommended limit for underweight women may have to be increased.
PubMed ID
17540802 View in PubMed
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Associations between birth weight and glucose intolerance in adulthood among Greenlandic Inuit.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature302016
Source
Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2019 Apr; 150:129-137
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Apr-2019
Author
Pernille Falberg Rønn
Marit Eika Jørgensen
Lærke Steenberg Smith
Peter Bjerregaard
Inger Katrine Dahl-Petersen
Christina Viskum Lytken Larsen
Niels Grarup
Gregers Stig Andersen
Author Affiliation
Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen, Gentofte, Denmark. Electronic address: pernille.falberg.roenn@regionh.dk.
Source
Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2019 Apr; 150:129-137
Date
Apr-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adiposity
Adolescent
Adult
Birth weight
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - epidemiology
Female
Glucose Intolerance - epidemiology
Glucose Tolerance Test
Greenland - epidemiology
Humans
Incidence
Insulin Resistance
Intra-Abdominal Fat - physiopathology
Inuits - statistics & numerical data
Male
Middle Aged
Obesity - physiopathology
Young Adult
Abstract
To examine the association between birth weight and glucose intolerance in adult Greenlandic Inuit.
We examined 1429 participants aged 18-56?years from two population-based, cross-sectional studies in Greenland with information on birth weight. Oral glucose tolerance tests, anthropometric measures and ultrasound of abdominal tissue were performed. Associations of birth weight with glucose markers were analysed using linear or logistic regressions. Spline analyses were conducted to examine u-shaped associations. Adjustments were done for age, sex, birth place, family history of diabetes, genetic admixture, TBC1D4 p.Arg684Ter carrier status, BMI and visceral adipose tissue.
The median birthweight was 3300?g and 3.9% had type 2 diabetes, T2DM. Spline analyses indicated overall linear associations. In fully adjusted analyses, an increase in birth weight of 1?kg was associated with a change in fasting plasma glucose of -0.06?mmol/L (95%CI: -0.11, -0.01), 2-h plasma glucose of -0.16?mmol/L (95%CI: -0.35, 0.02), HOMA-IR of -5.45% (95%CI: -10.34, -0.29), insulin sensitivity index of 7.04% (95%CI: 1.88, 12.45) and a trend towards a reduced risk of hyperglycaemia and T2DM, although statistically insignificant.
Birth weight was inversely associated with hepatic and peripheral insulin resistance independently of adult adiposity. Thus, the findings support low birth weight as a contributing factor for glucose intolerance in adult Inuit in Greenland.
PubMed ID
30851284 View in PubMed
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