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Action, prevention and epidemiology of paediatric obesity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature29463
Source
Acta Paediatr Suppl. 2005 Jun;94(448):30-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2005
Author
Inge Lissau
Author Affiliation
National Institute of Public Health, Copenhagen, Denmark. inl@niph.dk
Source
Acta Paediatr Suppl. 2005 Jun;94(448):30-7
Date
Jun-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Child
Child, Preschool
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Health Promotion - organization & administration
Humans
Male
Obesity - epidemiology - etiology - prevention & control
Risk factors
Abstract
The overall aim of this paper is to describe important issues regarding paediatric obesity as a public health problem. This paper focuses on actions taken, and on the prevalence of obesity in children, teens and adults in Denmark. In addition, the paper describes some important prevention studies, all of which are performed outside Denmark. Thus, this paper is not a classical review but rather a highlight of some aspects that the author finds important. The latest Danish national figures show a marked increase in the prevalence of obesity, especially among young men-a sevenfold increase from 1987 to 2000 (0.7 to 4.9%). Among young women aged 16-24, the increase is threefold in the same period. Among teens, the prevalence has increased by 2-3 times in recent decades. Nevertheless, compared to other European countries and the US, Denmark has a relatively low prevalence of obesity in adolescents. The present paper also covers results from prevention studies performed in both preschool and school settings. Some of these focus on the reduced intake of carbonated drinks, whereas others focus on both diet and physical exercise. Finally, this paper demonstrates that Denmark is at the forefront regarding a national action plan against obesity. Conclusion: This paper highlights some important aspects of the epidemiology, prevention and actions in the field of paediatric obesity with special focus on Denmark.
PubMed ID
16175804 View in PubMed
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Adolescent dietary patterns in Fiji and their relationships with standardized body mass index.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature114873
Source
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2013;10:45
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Jillian T Wate
Wendy Snowdon
Lynne Millar
Melanie Nichols
Helen Mavoa
Ramneek Goundar
Ateca Kama
Boyd Swinburn
Author Affiliation
School of Health and Social Development, Deakin University, Melbourne, Australia. jwate@deakin.edu.au
Source
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2013;10:45
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Body Composition
Body Height
Body mass index
Body Weight
Diet - adverse effects
Dietary Sucrose - administration & dosage
Energy intake
Female
Fiji - epidemiology
Food Habits
Health Behavior
Humans
Male
Meals
Obesity - epidemiology - etiology
Population Groups
Reference Standards
Urban Population
Abstract
Obesity has been increasing in adolescents in Fiji and obesogenic dietary patterns need to be assessed to inform health promotion. The objective of this study was to identify the dietary patterns of adolescents in peri-urban Fiji and determine their relationships with standardized body mass index (BMI-z).
This study analysed baseline measurements from the Pacific Obesity Prevention In Communities (OPIC) Project. The sample comprised 6,871 adolescents aged 13-18 years from 18 secondary schools on the main island of Viti Levu, Fiji. Adolescents completed a questionnaire that included diet-related variables; height and weight were measured. Descriptive statistics and regression analyses were conducted to examine the associations between dietary patterns and BMI-z, while controlling for confounders and cluster effect by school.
Of the total sample, 24% of adolescents were overweight or obese, with a higher prevalence among Indigenous Fijians and females. Almost all adolescents reported frequent consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSB) (90%) and low intake of fruit and vegetables (74%). Over 25% of participants were frequent consumers of takeaways for dinner, and either high fat/salt snacks, or confectionery after school. Nearly one quarter reported irregular breakfast (24%) and lunch (24%) consumption on school days, while fewer adolescents (13%) ate fried foods after school. IndoFijians were more likely than Indigenous Fijians to regularly consume breakfast, but had a high unhealthy SSB and snack consumption.Regular breakfast (p
Notes
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PubMed ID
23570554 View in PubMed
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Alcohol drinking frequency in relation to subsequent changes in waist circumference.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature87026
Source
Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Apr;87(4):957-63
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2008
Author
Tolstrup Janne S
Halkjaer Jytte
Heitmann Berit L
Tjønneland Anne M
Overvad Kim
Sørensen Thorkild I A
Grønbaek Morten N
Author Affiliation
Center for Alcohol Research, National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark. jst@niph.dk
Source
Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Apr;87(4):957-63
Date
Apr-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abdominal Fat - metabolism
Alcohol Drinking - adverse effects - metabolism
Body mass index
Body Size
Cohort Studies
Confidence Intervals
Cross-Sectional Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Obesity - epidemiology - etiology
Odds Ratio
Prevalence
Prospective Studies
Questionnaires
Sex Factors
Statistics, nonparametric
Waist-Hip Ratio
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional studies have reported a lower prevalence of abdominal obese persons among frequent drinkers than among nonfrequent drinkers. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that drinking frequency is associated with subsequent changes in waist circumference. DESIGN: Data come from a prospective cohort study conducted in 1993-1997 (baseline) and 1999-2002 (follow-up) and included 43 543 men and women. Baseline information on alcohol drinking frequency was related to 1) change in waist circumference by linear regression and 2) major gain and major loss in waist circumference (defined as waist change in the lowest or highest quintile of waist changes) by polytomous logistic regression, also taking into account amount of alcohol intake. RESULTS: Drinking frequency was inversely associated with changes in waist circumference in women and was unassociated with changes in waist circumference in men. Drinking frequency was unassociated with major waist loss but was inversely associated with major waist gain: odds ratios among men were 0.97 (95% CI: 0.73, 1.28), 0.95 (95% CI: 0.81, 1.12), 0.88 (95% CI: 0.77, 0.99), 0.82 (95% CI: 0.71, -0.95), and 0.79 (95% CI: 0.69, 0.9) for never drinking, drinking on 1, 2-4, 5-6, and 7 d/wk, respectively, compared with men who drank alcohol on
PubMed ID
18400719 View in PubMed
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The American paradox: the role of energy-dense fat-reduced food in the increasing prevalence of obesity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature61829
Source
Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 1998 Nov;1(6):573-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-1998
Author
A. Astrup
Author Affiliation
Research Department of Human Nutrition and LMC, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Frederiksberg C, Denmark. ast@kvl.dk
Source
Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 1998 Nov;1(6):573-7
Date
Nov-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Denmark - epidemiology
Diet, Fat-Restricted
Energy Intake - physiology
Humans
Nutrition Surveys
Obesity - epidemiology - etiology
Prevalence
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
United States - epidemiology
Abstract
Although surveys have reported that the fat content of the diet has decreased over past decades, the prevalence of obesity has continued to rise in Europe and North America. This phenomenon, 'the American paradox', has been attributed partly to an inability of the reduction in dietary fat to reduce excess body fat, and partly to the over-consumption of low-fat products, which, despite their reduced fat content, have in some cases been accused of maintaining a high energy density due to low fibre and water contents, and a high content of refined carbohydrates. In Denmark, the prevalence of obesity has increased in a period in which national dietary surveys have reported a reduction of more than 10% in dietary fat content. Analysing the Danish situation, it seems unlikely that the occurrence of the American paradox in Denmark is caused by the increased consumption of energy-dense, low-fat foods. Other explanations, e.g. the under-reporting of dietary fat in surveys and the clustering of obesity-promoting lifestyles in subgroups of the population, should be sought.
PubMed ID
10565412 View in PubMed
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[A society not friendly to physical activity?]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature32798
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2000 Jan 10;120(1):84
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-10-2000
Author
R. Bahr
Author Affiliation
Norges idrettshøgskole, Oslo.
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2000 Jan 10;120(1):84
Date
Jan-10-2000
Language
Norwegian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Child
Energy intake
Exercise
Food Habits
Humans
Life Style
Norway - epidemiology
Obesity - epidemiology - etiology - prevention & control
Physical Education and Training
World Health
PubMed ID
10815494 View in PubMed
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Assessment of selection bias in a health survey of children and families - the IDEFICS Sweden-study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature264169
Source
BMC Public Health. 2013;13:418
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Susann Regber
Masuma Novak
Gabriele Eiben
Lauren Lissner
Sabrina Hense
Tatiana Zverkova Sandström
Wolfgang Ahrens
Staffan Mårild
Source
BMC Public Health. 2013;13:418
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Child
Child Welfare
Child, Preschool
Cross-Sectional Studies
Family
Female
Health Surveys
Humans
Male
Pediatric Obesity - epidemiology - etiology - prevention & control
Pregnancy
Registries - statistics & numerical data
Selection Bias
Smoking - adverse effects
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
A health survey was performed in 2007-2008 in the IDEFICS/Sweden study (Identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants) in children aged 2-9 years. We hypothesized that families with disadvantageous socioeconomic and -demographic backgrounds and children with overweight and obesity were underrepresented.
In a cross-sectional study, we compared Swedish IDEFICS participants (N=1,825) with referent children (N=1,825) using data from Statistics Sweden population registers. IDEFICS participants were matched for age and gender with a referent child living in the same municipality. Longitudinal weight and height data from birth to 8 years was collected for both populations (n=3,650) from the children's local health services. Outcome measures included the family's socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, maternal body mass index (BMI) and smoking habits before pregnancy, the children's BMI standard deviation score (SDS) at the age of inclusion in the IDEFICS study (BMISDS-index), and the children's BMI-categories during the age-span. Comparisons between groups were done and a multiple logistic regression analysis for the study of determinants of participation in the IDEFICS study was performed.
Compared with IDEFICS participants, referent families were more likely to have lower education and income, foreign backgrounds, be single parents, and have mothers who smoked before pregnancy. Maternal BMI before pregnancy and child's BMISDS-index did not differ between groups. Comparing the longitudinal data-set, the prevalence of obesity was significantly different at age 8 years n= 45 (4.5%) versus n= 31 (2.9%) in the referent and IDEFICS populations, respectively. In the multivariable adjusted model, the strongest significant association with IDEFICS study participation was parental Swedish background (odds ratio (OR) = 1.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.48-2.47) followed by parents having high education OR 1.80, 95% CI (1.02-3.16) and being married or co-habiting OR 1.75 95% CI (1.38-2.23).
Families with single parenthood, foreign background, low education and income were underrepresented in the IDEFICS Sweden study. BMI at inclusion had no selection effect, but developing obesity was significantly greater among referents.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23634972 View in PubMed
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Association between size at birth, truncal fat and obesity in adult life and its contribution to blood pressure and coronary heart disease; study in a high birth weight population.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature53352
Source
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004 May;58(5):812-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2004
Author
I. Gunnarsdottir
B E Birgisdottir
R. Benediktsson
V. Gudnason
I. Thorsdottir
Author Affiliation
Unit for Nutrition Research, Landspitali-University Hospital, Iceland. ingigun@landspitali.is
Source
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004 May;58(5):812-8
Date
May-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abdomen - anatomy & histology
Adipose Tissue
Adult
Aged
Birth Weight - physiology
Body Constitution - physiology
Body mass index
Body Weight
Cohort Studies
Coronary Disease - epidemiology - etiology - mortality
Female
Humans
Hypertension - epidemiology - etiology
Iceland - epidemiology
Infant, Newborn
Male
Middle Aged
Obesity - epidemiology - etiology
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Retrospective Studies
Skinfold thickness
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between size at birth and obesity as well as truncal fat, and its contribution to cardiovascular risk in a high birth weight population. DESIGN: Cohort-study with retrospectively collected data on size at birth. SETTING: Reykjavik, Iceland. SUBJECTS: A total of 1874 men and 1833 women born in Reykjavik during 1914-1935. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Size at birth. Adult weight, height and skinfold thickness measurements, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fatal and nonfatal coronary heart disease (CHD). RESULTS: Birth weight was positively related to adult body mass index (BMI) in both genders (B=0.35+/-0.14 kg/m(2), adj. R(2)=0.015, P=0.012 and B=0.34+/-0.17 kg/m(2), adj. R(2)=0.055, P=0.043 in men and women, respectively). However, high birth weight was not a risk factor for adult obesity (BMI>/=30 kg/m(2)). In the highest birth weight quartile, the odds ratio (95% CI) for being above the 90th percentile of truncal fat was 0.7 (0.6-1.0, P=0.021) for men and 0.4 (0.3-0.8, P=0.002) for women, compared with the lowest birth weight quartile. Truncal fat and BMI were positively related to blood pressure in both genders (P
PubMed ID
15116085 View in PubMed
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Association of smoking status with obesity and diabetes among elderly people.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature166276
Source
Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2007 Sep-Oct;45(2):159-67
Publication Type
Article
Author
Tommi Sulander
Ossi Rahkonen
Aulikki Nissinen
Antti Uutela
Author Affiliation
Department of Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention, National Public Health Institute, Mannerheimintie 166, 00300 Helsinki, Finland. tommi.sulander@ktl.fi
Source
Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2007 Sep-Oct;45(2):159-67
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Body mass index
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diabetes Mellitus - epidemiology - etiology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Health Surveys
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Obesity - epidemiology - etiology
Risk factors
Smoking - adverse effects - epidemiology
Smoking Cessation
Abstract
The present study was aimed to examine associations of current and ex-smoking status with obesity and diabetes among elderly people. Nationwide study of Finnish elderly people based on biennial surveys from 1985 to 1995, were used to study 7482 people aged 65-79 years. Smoking status included non-, ex-light, ex-heavy, current light, and current heavy smokers. Obesity was set as body mass index (BMI) > or = 30. Information of smoking, BMI, and diabetes was based on self-reports. Logistic regression was used as the main method of analyses. Compared to non-smokers (reference category), ex-heavy smokers had higher (odds ratio, 1.42; 95% confidence interval: 1.09, 1.85) and current light smokers (OR, 0.46; 95% CI: 0.31, 0.69) lower relative risk of obesity. Current light smokers had also lower and ex-heavy smokers higher rate of diabetes than non-smokers. Ex-heavy smokers had a higher risk of obesity (OR, 1.75; 95% CI: 1.30, 2.36) and diabetes (OR, 1.48; 95% CI: 1.10, 2.01) than ex-light smokers. Same pattern for current smokers was found. Heavy ex- and current elderly smokers are at risk of obesity and diabetes. Thus, heavy smokers should be emphasized in programs promoting smoking cessation.
PubMed ID
17141889 View in PubMed
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Associations between long-term physical activity, waist circumference and weight gain: a 30-year longitudinal twin study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature162296
Source
Int J Obes (Lond). 2008 Feb;32(2):353-61
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2008
Author
K. Waller
J. Kaprio
U M Kujala
Author Affiliation
Department of Health Sciences, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland. katja.waller@sport.jyu.fi
Source
Int J Obes (Lond). 2008 Feb;32(2):353-61
Date
Feb-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Body Size - physiology
Epidemiologic Methods
Exercise - physiology
Female
Finland
Health Behavior
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Motor Activity - physiology
Obesity - epidemiology - etiology - prevention & control
Twins, Dizygotic - physiology
Twins, Monozygotic - physiology
Weight Gain - physiology
Abstract
Physical activity level and obesity are both partly determined by genes and childhood environment. To determine the associations between long-term leisure-time physical activity, weight gain and waist circumference and whether these are independent of genes and childhood effects.
The study design is a 30-year follow-up twin study in Finland. For this study, 146 twin pairs were comprehensively identified from the large Finnish Twin Cohort. These twin pairs were discordant for both intensity and volume of leisure physical activity in 1975 and 1981 and were healthy in 1981. At follow-up in 2005, both members of 89 pairs were alive and participated in a structured telephone interview. In the interview self-measured weight and waist circumference, and physical activity level for the whole follow-up were assessed. Paired tests were used in the statistical analyses.
Waist circumference at 30-year follow-up (2005) and change in weight from 1975 to 2005.
In the 42 twin pairs discordant for physical activity at all time points during the 30-year period, the mean weight gain from 1975 through 2005 was 5.4 kg (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.0-8.9) less in the active compared to inactive co-twins (paired t-test, P=0.003). In 2005, the mean waist circumference was 8.4 cm (95% CI 4.0-12.7) less in the active compared with inactive co-twins (P
PubMed ID
17653065 View in PubMed
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Associations between night work and BMI, alcohol, smoking, caffeine and exercise--a cross-sectional study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature272476
Source
BMC Public Health. 2015;15:1112
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Hogne Vikanes Buchvold
Ståle Pallesen
Nicolas M F Øyane
Bjørn Bjorvatn
Source
BMC Public Health. 2015;15:1112
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Alcohol Drinking
Body mass index
Caffeine - administration & dosage
Cardiovascular Diseases - etiology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Exercise
Female
Health Behavior
Humans
Life Style
Male
Middle Aged
Norway
Nurses - statistics & numerical data
Obesity - epidemiology - etiology
Risk factors
Sleep
Smoking
Surveys and Questionnaires
Work Schedule Tolerance
Young Adult
Abstract
Shift work is associated with negative health effects. Increased prevalence of several cardiovascular risk factors among shift workers/night workers compared with day workers have been shown resulting in increased risk of cardiovascular events among shift workers and night workers. Previous studies have taken a dichotomous approach to the comparison between day and night workers. The present study uses a continuous approach and provides such a new perspective to the negative effects of night work load as a possible risk factor for undesirable health effects.
This cross sectional study (The SUrvey of Shift work, Sleep and Health (SUSSH)) uses data collected from December 2008 to March 2009. The study population consists of Norwegian nurses. The study collected information about demographic and lifestyle factors: Body Mass Index (BMI), smoking habits, alcohol consumption, caffeine consumption and exercise habits. The lifestyle parameters were evaluated using multiple hierarchical regression and binary logistic regression. Number of night shifts worked last year (NNL) was used as operationalization of night work load. Adjustment for possible confounders were made. Obesity was defined as BMI > 30. Alcohol Consumption was evaluated using the short form of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test Consumption (AUDIT-C). Data were analyzed using SPSS version 22.
We had data from 2059 nurses. NNL was significantly and positively associated with BMI, both when evaluated against BMI as a continuous parameter (Beta = .055, p
Notes
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PubMed ID
26558686 View in PubMed
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151 records – page 1 of 16.