The accuracy of self-reported weights was assessed by comparing reported weights with measured weights of 1302 subjects at eight different medical and nonmedical sites across two countries (United States and Denmark), across ages, sexes, and different purposes for the weight measurements. Self-reported weights were remarkably accurate across all these variables in the American sample, even among obese people, and may obviate the need for measured weights in epidemiological investigations. Danish reports were somewhat less accurate, particularly among women over 40 yr of age.
INTRODUCTION/PURPOSE: Despite a large public health interest in physical activity and its role in obesity and other chronic diseases, only few reports to date have addressed total levels and trends of physical activity. We have studied in a cross-sectional setting with a retrospective recall of physical activity an association of levels of total physical activity and different types of activities with age and with calendar-time. METHODS: In a population-based study of 33,466 men aged 45-79 yr in central Sweden, information on physical activity and other lifestyle factors was collected through a self-administered questionnaire. Level of total activity at ages 15, 30, and 50 yr was assessed quantitatively, based on six questions on different activities: work/occupation, housework, walking/bicycling, exercise, inactive leisure time, and sleeping. The physical activity levels were measured as metabolic equivalents, MET-hours per days. RESULTS: Total daily physical activity decreased at age 30 yr (-1.6%, 95% CI: -1.7, -1.4) and at age 50 yr (-3.9%, 95% CI: -4.0, -3.7) compared with age 15 yr. Total physical activity decreased over a period of 60 yr in all three separate age groups (-9.1% among 15-yr-olds, 95% CI: -9.8, -8.5; -2.3% among 30-yr-olds 95% CI: -3.0, -1.6; and -2.9% among 50-yr-olds, 95% CI: -3.4, -2.5). CONCLUSION: These negative trends in physical activity observed by age and with time might explain the trends in increasing prevalence of obesity.
High physical activity, low sedentary behavior and low consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages can be markers of a healthy lifestyle. We aim to observe longitudinal changes and secular trends in these lifestyle variables as well as in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in 7-to-9-year-old schoolchildren related to gender and socioeconomic position.
Three cross-sectional surveys were carried out on schoolchildren in grades 1 and 2 (7-to-9-year-olds) in 2008 (n = 833), 2010 (n = 1085), and 2013 (n = 1135). Information on children's level of physical activity, sedentary behavior, diet, and parent's education level was collected through parental questionnaires. Children's height and weight were also measured. Longitudinal measurements were carried out on a subsample (n = 678) which was included both in 2008 (7-to-9-year-olds) and 2010 (9-to-11-year-olds). BMI was used to classify children into overweight (including obese) and obese based on the International Obesity Task Force reference. Questionnaire reported maternal education level was used as a proxy for socioeconomic position (SEP).
Longitudinally, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages = 4 days/week increased from 7% to 16% in children with low SEP. Overall, sedentary behavior > 4 hours/day doubled from 14% to 31% (p
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The majority of the obese children among 965 ten-year olds were overweight already at 7 yrs, but had not gained weight excessively during the first year of life. The most critical period therefore is the age between 1 and 7 yrs.
Apolipoprotein E (apoE) polymorphism is one of the genetic determinants of serum cholesterol values. The apoE epsilon4 allele has been associated with advanced coronary heart disease (CHD) diagnosed by angiography, but the role of the apoE genotype in atherosclerosis has not been confirmed at vessel-wall level, nor is any age-dependent effect of the apoE genotype on the development of CHD known.
The right and left anterior descending coronary arteries (RCA and LAD) and the aorta from 700 male autopsy cases (Helsinki Sudden Death Study) in 1981-1982 and 1991-1992 (average age 53 years, range 33 to 70 years) were stained for fat, and all areas covered with fatty streaks, fibrotic plaques, and complicated lesions were measured. In the RCA and LAD, the apoE genotype was significantly associated with the area of total atherosclerotic lesions in men
To investigate trends in body mass index (BMI) and prevalence of obesity among adults in Finland from 1982 to 1997, and to identify population groups with increasing obesity.
Random samples from the national population register including men and women aged 25-64 y (n = 24604, total).
Four cross-sectional surveys carried out in three areas in Finland every fifth year since 1982.
Weight and height were measured, and data on occupation and education level were collected by a self-administered questionnaire.
The mean BMI increased in both genders. In men, the upward trend was greatest (the increase of 1.3 kg/m2 in 15 y) in the oldest age group (55-64 y), and was found also (the increase of 0.6 kg/m2) in the youngest age group (25-34 y), whereas in women, the upward trend was most prominent (the increase of 0.9 kg/m2) in the youngest age group. BMI increased in all educational groups in men, but in women the upward trend seemed to be greatest in the lowest educational group. The upward trends were most prominent among retired and unemployed men, while in women changes in BMI were similar in all occupational groups.
The strongest upward trend in BMI was found in the oldest men, in the youngest age group in both genders and, in particular, among men who were outside the labor force. Education is still a strong determinant of obesity, especially in women, although the social gradient in BMI has not widened in the 1990s.
The identification of spatial clusters of overweight and obesity can be a key indicator for targeting scarce public health resources. This paper examines sex-specific spatial patterns of overweight/obesity in Canada as well as investigates the presence of spatial clusters.
Using data on Body Mass Index (BMI) from the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey (20 years and older) cycle 3.1, a cross-sectional ecological-level study was conducted. Sex-specific prevalence of overweight and obesity were first mapped to explore spatial patterns. In order to assess the degree of spatial dependence, exploratory spatial data analysis was performed using the Moran's I statistic and the Local Indicator of Spatial Association (LISA).
Results revealed marked geographical variation in overweight/obesity prevalence with higher values in the Northern and Atlantic health-regions and lower values in the Southern and Western health-regions of Canada. Significant positive spatial autocorrelation was found for both males and females, with significant clusters of high values or 'hot spots' of obesity in the Atlantic and Northern health-regions of Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba and Ontario.
Findings reveal overweight/obesity clusters and underscore the importance of geographically focused prevention strategies informed by population-specific needs.
Obesity is an established risk factor for endometrial cancer, but this association is not well understood for subtypes of endometrial cancer. We evaluated the association of recent and adult-life obesity with subtypes of endometrial cancer based on microsatellite status (microsatellite-stable (MSS) vs. microsatellite-instable (MSI)) and histology (type I vs. type II). Analyses were based on a population-based case-control study (524 cases and 1,032 controls) conducted in Alberta, Canada (2002-2006) and included the following groupings of subtypes: MSS = 337 and MSI = 130; type I = 458 and type II = 66. Logistic and polytomous logistic regression were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for overall endometrial cancer and subtypes of endometrial cancer, respectively. The risks of all subtypes of endometrial cancer, except type II, increased with an increase in all of the anthropometric characteristics examined. The risks for MSI tumors were suggestively stronger than those for MSS tumors; the risk with high (=30) body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) was significantly stronger for MSI tumors (odds ratio = 4.96, 95% confidence interval: 2.76, 8.91) than for MSS tumors (odds ratio = 2.33, 95% confidence interval: 1.66, 3.28) (P-heterogeneity = 0.02). Obesity is associated with most subtypes of endometrial cancer, and further studies are warranted to elucidate the biological mechanisms underlying the stronger risk for the MSI subtype with a high body mass index.
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To test the association between obesity and specific types and anatomical sites of unintentional injuries in older adults.
Participants consisted of 52,857 men and women aged =65 years from the 2003 and 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey. Weight, height, and details on injuries occurring in the past year were obtained by survey.
Obese individuals had a higher risk for sprains/strains occurring at any anatomical site (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval: men 1.48, 1.48-1.62; women 1.14, 1.10-1.27). Conversely, obese individuals were less likely to have a fracture at any anatomical location (men 0.56, 0.50-0.63; women 0.66, 0.51-0.92) or at the hip (men 0.31, 0.12-0.53; women 0.42, 0.29-0.92). Finally, obese older adults did not experience more superficial injuries than normal-weight individuals.
Among this large sample of older adults, obesity provided some protection against fractures but was associated with higher odds for sprains/strains.
Study results concerning associations between body mass index (BMI) and psychological distress are conflicting. The purpose of this study was to describe the shape of the association between BMI and psychological distress in a large sample of Swedish adults.
Data was measured with the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12), in 68,311 adults aged 18-74. Self-reported data was derived from a merger of the 2000, 2004 and 2008 Life and Health (Liv och Hälsa) questionnaires focusing general perceived distress as well as living conditions. Logistic regression analysis was used to describe the association between BMI and psychological distress when controlled for age and gender in combination.
Women reported an overall higher psychological distress than men. A significant pattern of decreasing psychological distress with increasing age emerged among women in all BMI categories. Trends of this same pattern showed for men. Small or no differences were seen in psychological distress between those in normal weight, overweight, and obesity I categories (among women: 20.4%, 18.4%, 20.5%; among men: 12.8%, 11.2%, 12.9%). For both genders, any notable increase in psychological distress appeared first in the obesity II category (among women: 27.2%. Among men: 17.8%).
Psychological distress decreases with increasing age regardless of BMI; a pattern more obvious for women. Being categorized with obesity II leads to a markedly higher psychological distress than being categorized with normal weight, overweight or obesity I. From this, we suggest that future obesity research focusing on psychological distress could investigate the role of stigma and norm susceptibility in relationships where people are evaluated through the eyes of the other.