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A cross-sectional examination of modifiable risk factors for chronic disease among a nationally representative sample of youth: are Canadian students graduating high school with a failing grade for health?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature113165
Source
BMC Public Health. 2013;13:569
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Scott T Leatherdale
Vicki Rynard
Author Affiliation
School of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue, Waterloo ON, N2L 3G1, Canada. sleather@uwaterloo.ca
Source
BMC Public Health. 2013;13:569
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior - psychology
Age Distribution
Binge Drinking - epidemiology
Canada - epidemiology
Chronic Disease
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diet - statistics & numerical data
Female
Guidelines as Topic
Health Behavior
Humans
Male
Marijuana Smoking - epidemiology
Motor Activity
Obesity - epidemiology
Overweight - epidemiology
Risk factors
Sedentary lifestyle
Sex Distribution
Smoking - epidemiology
Students - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Substance use and weight gain among youth increase the risk for future disease. As such, the purpose of this study is to examine how many Canadian youth are currently failing to meet substance use and weight gain related public health guidelines.
Data from the 2010-11 Youth Smoking Survey were used to examine grade 9 to 12 students meeting seven different guidelines by sex and by grade.
Among Canadian youth, 8.8% were current smokers, 18.8% were current marijuana users, 25.5% were current binge drinkers, 22.5% were considered overweight or obese, 31.2% did not meet physical activity guidelines, 89.4% exceeded sedentary behaviour guidelines, and 93.6% reported inadequate fruit and vegetable intake. The mean number of risk factors per student was 2.9 (±1.2); only 0.5% of youth reported having none of the risk factors.
Students rarely met all seven public health guideline examined, and the vast majority of actually reported having two or more modifiable risk factors for disease.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23758659 View in PubMed
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The impact of adverse childhood experiences on obesity and unhealthy weight control behaviors among adolescents.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature285252
Source
Compr Psychiatry. 2016 Nov;71:17-24
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2016
Author
Reetta Isohookana
Mauri Marttunen
Helinä Hakko
Pirkko Riipinen
Kaisa Riala
Source
Compr Psychiatry. 2016 Nov;71:17-24
Date
Nov-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior - psychology
Adult Survivors of Child Abuse - psychology
Body mass index
Comorbidity
Feeding Behavior - psychology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology
Obesity - epidemiology - psychology
Overweight - epidemiology - psychology
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Abstract
Childhood abuse and other early-life stressors associate with being overweight or obese later in life. In addition to being overweight, unhealthy weight control behaviors (e.g., vomiting, using diet pills, fasting, and skipping meals) have been shown to be common among adolescents. To our knowledge, the association between these behaviors and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) remains unexamined.
We examined the association of ACEs to body mass index (BMI) and unhealthy weight control behaviors among 449 Finnish adolescents aged 12 to 17years admitted to an acute psychiatric hospital unit between April 2001 and March 2006. We used the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Present and Lifetime (K-SADS-PL) and the European Addiction Severity Index (EuropASI) to obtain information about ACEs, psychiatric diagnoses and weight control behaviors. BMI was calculated using the weight and height measured for each adolescent upon admission.
Girls who experienced sexual abuse were more likely to be obese (OR: 2.6; 95% CI: 1.1-6.4) and demonstrate extreme weight loss behaviors (EWLB) (OR: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.0-4.7). Among girls, parental unemployment is associated with an increased likelihood of obesity (OR: 3.5; 95% CI: 1.2-9.6) and of being underweight (OR: 3.6; 95% CI: 1.1-11.6). A proneness for excessively exercising was found among girls who had witnessed domestic violence (OR: 3.5; 95% CI: 1.4-9.2) and whose parent(s) had died (OR: 5.4; 95% CI: 1.1-27.7).
This study showed that female adolescents with a history of traumatic experiences or difficult family circumstances exhibited an elevated likelihood of being obese and engaging in unhealthy weight control behaviors.
PubMed ID
27580313 View in PubMed
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Increasing activity to reduce obesity in adolescent girls: a research review.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature177235
Source
J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2004 Nov-Dec;33(6):801-8
Publication Type
Article
Author
Donna Clemmens
Laura L Hayman
Author Affiliation
Division of Nursing, Steinhardt School of Education, New York University, 246 Greene Street, New York, NY 10003, USA. dc70@nyu.edu
Source
J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2004 Nov-Dec;33(6):801-8
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior - psychology
Adolescent Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Adolescent Psychology
Body mass index
Canada - epidemiology
Exercise - psychology
Female
Health Behavior
Health Promotion - methods
Humans
Obesity - epidemiology - prevention & control
United States - epidemiology
Abstract
To provide a systematic review of physical activity intervention research conducted with adolescent girls (12-19 years of age and/or in middle or high school) in the United States and Canada during the past two decades.
Published articles in English were identified in searches using MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PsycLIT, EMBASE, Science Citation Index, and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, with the keywords adolescent health, obesity, physical activity, and exercise, between the dates of May 1980 and November 2003.
Research studies with interventions that started within the adolescent time period. Only 7 studies met the inclusion criteria.
The publication year, sample description, study design, interventions used, and outcomes were extracted from each study.
The 7 studies were published between 1989 and 2003, included girls and boys in the overall sample (no studies with girl-only samples), used randomized controlled trial or quasi-experimental designs, and included multicomponent interventions. Body mass index, fitness levels, exercise, and weight were measured as outcomes.
Although the results were not consistent across studies, they suggest that school-based, multicomponent interventions that were also designed to decrease sedentary behavior were effective in increasing physical activity in adolescent girls. Future research should focus on determinants of long-term adherence and the duration and intensity of interventions necessary to prevent obesity in adolescent girls.
PubMed ID
15561669 View in PubMed
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Parenting styles and treatment of adolescents with obesity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature78178
Source
Pediatr Nurs. 2007 Jan-Feb;33(1):21-8
Publication Type
Article
Author
Regber Susan
Berg-Kelly Kristina
Mårild Staffan
Author Affiliation
Queen Silvia Children's Hospital, Goteborg, Sweden.
Source
Pediatr Nurs. 2007 Jan-Feb;33(1):21-8
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior - psychology
Adolescent Psychology
Authoritarianism
Clinical Competence
Communication
Empathy
Female
Health Education - organization & administration
Humans
Male
Models, Psychological
Nurse's Role - psychology
Obesity - epidemiology - prevention & control - psychology
Parent-Child Relations
Parenting - psychology
Parents - education - psychology
Patient Care Team - organization & administration
Pediatric Nursing - organization & administration
Permissiveness
Professional-Family Relations
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Trust
Abstract
Professional caregivers have an important task in building a trusting relationship with parents and adolescents and in supporting parents in their parental roles. Our clinical experience of some 300 adolescents with obesity between 9 and 18 years of age and their parents has convinced us that consideration of parenting styles is fundamental in the treatment of children and adolescents with obesity. Typical case situations supporting the significance of parenting styles and illustrating the relationships between parents and adolescents with obesity can be identified. Group sessions with parents are the preferred mode for discussing typical parenting issues in the management of obese adolescents. The purpose of this paper is to describe different parenting styles, and to present a set of typical case situations and treatment strategies for nurses working with adolescents with obesity.
PubMed ID
17410997 View in PubMed
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Susceptibility to smoking and its association with physical activity, BMI, and weight concerns among youth.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature158433
Source
Nicotine Tob Res. 2008 Mar;10(3):499-505
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2008
Author
Scott T Leatherdale
Suzy L Wong
Steve R Manske
Graham A Colditz
Author Affiliation
Division of Preventive Oncology, Cancer Care Ontario, Toronto ON, Canada. scott.leatherdale@cancercare.on.ca
Source
Nicotine Tob Res. 2008 Mar;10(3):499-505
Date
Mar-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior - psychology
Attitude to Health
Body Image
Body mass index
Body Weight
Comorbidity
Female
Humans
Male
Obesity - epidemiology
Ontario - epidemiology
Peer Group
Questionnaires
Self Concept
Smoking - epidemiology
Social Perception
Thinness - epidemiology
Abstract
Research has yet to examine how physical activity, body mass index (BMI) and concerns about weight among youth populations are associated with susceptibility to smoking among never smokers. The Physical Activity Module of the School Health Action, Planning and Evaluation System (SHAPES) was completed by 25,060 students in grades 9 to 12 within 76 secondary schools in Ontario (Canada) to examine how being overweight, weight concerns, and physical activity are associated with susceptibility to smoking in a large sample of youth. Among the 14,795 students who were never smokers, 3,809 (25.8%) were classified as susceptible to future smoking and 10,986 (74.2%) were classified as non-susceptible to future smoking. Smoking susceptibility was negatively associated with being highly active or at risk of overweight and positively associated with perceptions of being slightly overweight or slightly underweight. Students who report 1 or more hours of screen or phone time per day were also more likely to be susceptible. This is the first study to identify that susceptibility to future smoking among never smokers is associated with physical activity, overweight and concerns about weight. This is valuable new insight for tailoring and targeting future school-based tobacco control and/or physical activity programming to youth populations.
PubMed ID
18324569 View in PubMed
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