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Associations between diet quality and physical activity measures among a southern Ontario regional sample of grade 6 students.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature138577
Source
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2010 Dec;35(6):826-33
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2010
Author
Sarah J Woodruff
Rhona M Hanning
Author Affiliation
Department of Health Studies and Gerontology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada. woodruff@uwindsor.ca
Source
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2010 Dec;35(6):826-33
Date
Dec-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior
Body mass index
Canada - epidemiology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diet
Female
Health promotion
Humans
Internet
Male
Motor Activity
Obesity - epidemiology - prevention & control
Overweight - epidemiology - prevention & control
Questionnaires
Sex Characteristics
Time Factors
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to determine diet quality and physical activity behaviours of grade 6 students by sex and body weight status, and to determine the associations between diet quality and physical activity behaviours. The Web-based Food Behaviour Questionnaire, which included a 24-h diet recall and the modified Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C), was administered to a cross-section of schools (n = 405 students from 15 schools). Measured height and weight were used to calculate body mass index and weight status (Cole et al. 2000). A Canadian version of the Healthy Eating Index (HEI-C) was used to describe overall diet quality. The mean HEI-C was 69.6 (13.2) with the majority (72%) falling into the needs improvement category. The overall mean physical activity score was 3.7 out of a maximum of 5, with obese subjects being less active compared with normal weight and overweight (p 
PubMed ID
21164554 View in PubMed
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Associations of meal frequency and breakfast with obesity and metabolic syndrome traits in adolescents of Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature121504
Source
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2013 Oct;23(10):1002-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2013
Author
A. Jääskeläinen
U. Schwab
M. Kolehmainen
J. Pirkola
M-R Järvelin
J. Laitinen
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio Campus, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio, Finland. Electronic address: Anne.Jaaskelainen@uef.fi.
Source
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2013 Oct;23(10):1002-9
Date
Oct-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior
Body mass index
Breakfast
Cohort Studies
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diet - adverse effects
Feeding Behavior
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Food Habits
Humans
Hypertriglyceridemia - epidemiology - etiology - prevention & control
Male
Meals
Metabolic Syndrome X - epidemiology - etiology - prevention & control
Obesity - epidemiology - etiology - prevention & control
Prevalence
Prospective Studies
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Abstract
Breakfast consumption and meal frequencies have been linked to the risk of obesity in youth but their associations with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in young populations are yet to be studied. We examined associations of three meal patterns on weekdays--five meals including breakfast, =four meals including breakfast and =four meals without breakfast--with overweight/obesity and MetS components in Finnish adolescents.
A population-based sample of 16-year-old boys and girls (n = 6247) from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 was used. Adolescents were clinically examined and dietary data were collected using self-administered questionnaires. Overweight/obesity and MetS features were defined according to the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs and the International Diabetes Federation MetS paediatric criteria and their associations with meal patterns assessed using logistic regression, adjusted separately for early life factors (birth size, maternal health) and later childhood factors (health behaviours, weight status, parental education). After adjustment for early life factors, the adolescents who ate five meals/day were at lower risk for overweight/obesity (OR [95% CI] for boys: 0.47 [0.34, 0.65]; girls: 0.57 [0.41, 0.79]), abdominal obesity (OR [95% CI] for boys: 0.32 [0.22, 0.48]; girls: 0.54 [0.39, 0.75]) and hypertriglyceridaemia (boys only). Adjusting for later childhood factors, the five-meal-a-day pattern was associated with decreased odds of overweight/obesity (OR [95% CI] for boys: 0.41 [0.29, 0.58]; girls: 0.63 [0.45, 0.89]) and abdominal obesity in boys (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.16, 0.63).
Among 16-year-olds, the five-meal-a-day pattern was robustly associated with reduced risks of overweight/obesity in both genders and abdominal obesity in boys.
PubMed ID
22901841 View in PubMed
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Associations of Physical Activity, Sports Participation and Active Commuting on Mathematic Performance and Inhibitory Control in Adolescents.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature274239
Source
PLoS One. 2016;11(1):e0146319
Publication Type
Article
Date
2016
Author
Sidsel L Domazet
Jakob Tarp
Tao Huang
Anne Kær Gejl
Lars Bo Andersen
Karsten Froberg
Anna Bugge
Source
PLoS One. 2016;11(1):e0146319
Date
2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Actigraphy
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior
Anthropometry
Bicycling
Breakfast
Cross-Sectional Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Educational Status
Female
Games, Experimental
Humans
Male
Mathematics
Motor Activity
Obesity - epidemiology
Psychomotor Performance
Reaction Time
Sports
Transportation
Video Games
Abstract
To examine objectively measured physical activity level, organized sports participation and active commuting to school in relation to mathematic performance and inhibitory control in adolescents.
The design was cross-sectional. A convenient sample of 869 sixth and seventh grade students (12-14 years) was invited to participate in the study. A total of 568 students fulfilled the inclusion criteria and comprised the final sample for this study. Mathematic performance was assessed by a customized test and inhibitory control was assessed by a modified Eriksen flanker task. Physical activity was assessed with GT3X and GT3X+ accelerometers presented in sex-specific quartiles of mean counts per minute and mean minutes per day in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Active commuting and sports participation was self-reported. Mixed model regression was applied. Total physical activity level was stratified by bicycling status in order to bypass measurement error subject to the accelerometer.
Non-cyclists in the 2nd quartile of counts per minute displayed a higher mathematic score, so did cyclists in the 2nd and 3rd quartile of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity relative to the least active quartile. Non-cyclists in the 3rd quartile of counts per minute had an improved reaction time and cyclists in the 2nd quartile of counts per minute and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity displayed an improved accuracy, whereas non-cyclists in the 2nd quartile of counts per minute showed an inferior accuracy relative to the least active quartile. Bicycling to school and organized sports participation were positively associated with mathematic performance.
Sports participation and bicycling were positively associated with mathematic performance. Results regarding objectively measured physical activity were mixed. Although, no linear nor dose-response relationship was observed there was no indication of a higher activity level impairing the scholastic or cognitive performance.
Notes
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PubMed ID
26727211 View in PubMed
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Can young adult smoking status be predicted from concern about body weight and self-reported BMI among adolescents? Results from a ten-year cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature154106
Source
Nicotine Tob Res. 2008 Sep;10(9):1449-55
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2008
Author
John J Koval
Linda L Pederson
Xiaohe Zhang
Paul Mowery
Mary McKenna
Author Affiliation
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada. jkoval@biostats.uwo.ca
Source
Nicotine Tob Res. 2008 Sep;10(9):1449-55
Date
Sep-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior
Body mass index
Body Weight
Cohort Studies
Comorbidity
Female
Health Behavior
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Obesity - epidemiology - psychology
Ontario - epidemiology
Peer Group
Self Concept
Smoking - epidemiology - psychology
Smoking Cessation - statistics & numerical data
Social Environment
Young Adult
Abstract
We sought to evaluate the relationship between the perception of being overweight and BMI (body mass index) when participants were adolescents and their cigarette smoking as young adults. In 1993, 1598 students in grade 6 from 107 schools in Scarborough (Ontario) completed the base line questionnaire. Of these, 1,543, 1,455 and 1,254 responded at follow-ups in grades 8 and 11, and as young adults (in 2002), respectively. Reported smoking behavior was used to categorize people as current and never smokers. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate BMI. Girls who thought themselves overweight in grades 8 and 11 were more likely to be smoking as young adults (odds ratios of 1.778 and 1.627, respectively). Boys with higher self-reported BMIs in grades 8 and 11 were more likely to be smokers as young adults (odds ratios of 1.115 and 1.095, respectively). These findings provide evidence of the longitudinal effect of perception of being overweight as an adolescent on smoking as a young adult and suggest possible ways of averting smoking behavior.
PubMed ID
19023836 View in PubMed
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Clustering of energy balance-related behaviours, sleep, and overweight among Finnish adolescents.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature293518
Source
Int J Public Health. 2017 Nov; 62(8):929-938
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Nov-2017
Author
Teija Nuutinen
Elviira Lehto
Carola Ray
Eva Roos
Jari Villberg
Jorma Tynjälä
Author Affiliation
Folkhälsan Research Center, Helsinki, Finland.
Source
Int J Public Health. 2017 Nov; 62(8):929-938
Date
Nov-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior
Cluster analysis
Computers - utilization
Diet - statistics & numerical data
Energy Metabolism
Exercise - psychology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Pediatric Obesity - epidemiology
Risk factors
Sedentary lifestyle
Sex Distribution
Sleep
Surveys and Questionnaires
Television - utilization
Time Factors
Video Games - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
To examine how clusters of energy balance-related behaviours (EBRBs), including sleep related factors, were associated with overweight among adolescents.
In Finland, 4262 adolescents, aged 13-15, participated in the cross-national Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study. The adolescents completed questionnaires assessing EBRBs [sleep duration, discrepancy and quality, physical activity (PA), screen time, junk food, fruit, and vegetable intake] and height and weight. Clusters were identified with ?-means cluster analysis and their associations with overweight with logistic regression analyses.
Common clusters for boys and girls were labelled "Healthy lifestyle" and "High screen time, unhealthy lifestyle". In addition, the cluster "Low/moderate screen time, unhealthy lifestyle" was identified among boys, and the cluster "Poor sleep, unhealthy lifestyle" among girls. Only girls in the cluster "High screen time, unhealthy lifestyle" were at increased risk for overweight.
Girls, whose EBRB was characterized by high screen time and low PA, but not with poor sleep, were at increased risk for overweight. Future studies should examine ways to promote PA among adolescent girls with high interest in screen-based activities.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28593331 View in PubMed
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Far from ideal: weight perception, weight control, and associated risky behaviour of adolescent girls in Nova Scotia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature161310
Source
Can Fam Physician. 2007 Apr;53(4):678-84
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2007
Author
Sarah Jane Cook
Kathleen MacPherson
Donald B Langille
Author Affiliation
University of Ottawa, Ontario. sarahjanecook@gmail.com
Source
Can Fam Physician. 2007 Apr;53(4):678-84
Date
Apr-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior
Attitude to Health
Body Image
Body mass index
Body Weight
Confidence Intervals
Diet, Fat-Restricted
Female
Health Surveys
Humans
Logistic Models
Nova Scotia - epidemiology
Obesity - epidemiology - prevention & control - psychology
Odds Ratio
Risk-Taking
Rural Population
Abstract
To examine the prevalence of weight-related concerns, unhealthy weight-control behaviour, and associated risky behaviour among adolescent girls, and to ascertain whether these girls had discussed a healthy weight with their physicians.
Anonymous, self-report, cross-sectional survey.
Four high schools in rural Nova Scotia.
Adolescent girls in grades 10 to 12.
Weight perception, prevalence of weight-control behaviour, associations between weight perception and risky behaviour, associations between disordered eating behaviour and other risky behaviour.
Overall response rate was 76%. Half the 1133 participants saw themselves as not being the "right" weight; 60% were trying to lose weight. During the past 30 days, 16% of the girls were attempting to control or lose weight and had engaged in disordered eating behaviour. In univariate analysis, perception of being either overweight or underweight was significantly associated with suicidal thoughts, suicide planning, and risk of depression. In multivariate analysis, positive associations were found between disordered eating behaviour and suicidal thoughts (odds ratio [OR] 4.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.6 to 6.7), suicide planning (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.7 to 4.7), suicide attempts (OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.8 to 6.6), and ever having had vaginal intercourse (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.5). Only 22% of respondents had spoken with a doctor about a healthy weight.
Weight concerns are prevalent among adolescent girls in Nova Scotia. Many of them, especially those who see themselves as overweight or underweight, engage in unhealthy weight-control methods. Perceived underweight and overweight and disordered eating behaviour have strong associations with depression and self-harming behaviour. Few participants had discussed a healthy weight with a physician. Health professionals should be aware of the associations between weight perception and disordered eating behaviour and other risky behaviour.
Notes
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PubMed ID
17872719 View in PubMed
Less detail
Source
CMAJ. 2004 Oct 26;171(9):1024-5; author reply 1025
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-26-2004
Author
Jacqueline Quail
J A Chris Delaney
Bruce Oddson
Source
CMAJ. 2004 Oct 26;171(9):1024-5; author reply 1025
Date
Oct-26-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior
Age Factors
Attitude to Health
Body Image
Body mass index
Canada - epidemiology
Diet
Eating Disorders - epidemiology
Female
Health Education - methods
Humans
Male
Obesity - epidemiology - prevention & control
Risk assessment
School Health Services
Self Concept
Notes
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Comment On: CMAJ. 2004 May 11;170(10):1559-6115136549
PubMed ID
15505249 View in PubMed
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Influence of individual- and area-level measures of socioeconomic status on obesity, unhealthy eating, and physical inactivity in Canadian adolescents.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature171277
Source
Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Jan;83(1):139-45
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2006
Author
Ian Janssen
William F Boyce
Kelly Simpson
William Pickett
Author Affiliation
School of Physical and Health Education, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada. janssen@post.queensu.ca
Source
Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Jan;83(1):139-45
Date
Jan-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior
Adolescent Psychology
Canada
Child
Cross-Sectional Studies
Exercise - physiology
Female
Food Habits
Humans
Income
Logistic Models
Male
Obesity - epidemiology - etiology
Population Surveillance
Risk factors
Social Class
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
Low socioeconomic status (SES) is a risk factor for obesity. However, few studies have used a multilevel analysis to determine the influence of both individual- and area-level determinants of SES on obesity, and these studies have been limited to adults.
The primary objective was to examine associations between individual- and area-level measures of SES and obesity among adolescents by using a multilevel analytic approach. A secondary objective was to examine associations between individual- and area-level measures of SES with unhealthy eating and physical inactivity.
The study sample consisted of 6684 youth in grades 6-10 from 169 schools across Canada. Individual-level SES exposures included material wealth and perceived family wealth. Area-level SES exposures included unemployment rate, percentage of adult residents with less than a high school education, and average employment income from head of household. Associations between SES and the outcome measures were examined by using multilevel logistic regression procedures that modeled students (individual level) nested within schools (area level).
Both individual-level and all 3 area-level SES measures were inversely associated with obesity. The odds for unhealthy eating were increased for those living in an area with a low percentage of residents with a high school education. The odds of being physically inactive increased with decreasing levels of material wealth and perception of family wealth.
Individual- and area-level SES measures were independently related to obesity, which suggests that both individual and environmental approaches may be required to curtail adolescent obesity.
PubMed ID
16400062 View in PubMed
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Modifiable characteristics associated with sedentary behaviours among youth.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature157264
Source
Int J Pediatr Obes. 2008;3(2):93-101
Publication Type
Article
Date
2008
Author
Scott T Leatherdale
Suzy L Wong
Author Affiliation
Division of Preventive Oncology, Cancer Care Ontario, Toronto ON, Canada, M5G 2L7. scott.leatherdale@cancercare.on.ca
Source
Int J Pediatr Obes. 2008;3(2):93-101
Date
2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior
Body mass index
Computers
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Health Behavior
Humans
Leisure Activities
Life Style
Logistic Models
Male
Motor Activity
Obesity - epidemiology - etiology - prevention & control - psychology
Odds Ratio
Ontario - epidemiology
Overweight - epidemiology - etiology - prevention & control - psychology
Parent-Child Relations
Reading
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Smoking - adverse effects
Social Behavior
Time Factors
Abstract
Childhood overweight and obesity is a major public health issue. A better understanding of factors associated with sedentary behaviours would provide valuable insight for tailoring interventions to prevent or reduce overweight among youth.
Data were collected from 25,416 grade 9 to 12 students attending 76 secondary schools in Ontario, Canada, using the Physical Activity Module of the School Health Action, Planning and Evaluation System (SHAPES). Sex specific multivariate logistic regression analyses were then used to examine how physical activity, BMI, social influences, and smoking behaviour were associated with screen time, time spent reading, and time spent on homework.
The average screen time per day was 2.7 (+/-1.7) hours, yet 48.1% of students reported spending less than one hour reading per week and 30.2% spent less than an hour of time on homework per week. Among males, being underweight ( or = 85% percentile BMI, adjusted for age and sex) was associated with less time spent on homework (OR 0.75, 95%CI 0.65-0.85). Conversely, among females, being at risk of overweight was associated with more screen time (OR 1.24, 95%CI 1.10-1.41), and time spent reading (OR 1.19, 95%CI 1.05-1.35). Aside from BMI, other factors associated with sedentary behaviours included physical activity, parental encouragement and support for physical activity, close friend physical activity behaviour, and smoking status.
We found that students are highly involved in screen-based sedentary behaviours, but spend a limited time on more productive sedentary behaviours, like reading and homework. Developing a better understanding of sedentary behaviours is critical for preventing and reducing obesity among youth populations.
Notes
Comment In: Int J Pediatr Obes. 2008;3(2):66-818465432
PubMed ID
18465435 View in PubMed
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[Physical activity of 9 and 15 year old Icelandic children - Public health objectives and relations of physical activity to gender, age, anthropometry and area of living].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature136836
Source
Laeknabladid. 2011 Feb;97(2):75-81
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2011
Author
Kristjan Thor Magnusson
Sigurbjorn Arni Arngrimsson
Thorarinn Sveinsson
Erling Johannsson
Author Affiliation
Menntavisindasvioi Haskola Islands, Skipholti, Reykjavik.
Source
Laeknabladid. 2011 Feb;97(2):75-81
Date
Feb-2011
Language
Icelandic
Geographic Location
Iceland
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Actigraphy - instrumentation
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior
Age Factors
Anthropometry
Body Height
Body Weight
Child
Child Behavior
Exercise
Female
Health Behavior
Humans
Iceland - epidemiology
Male
Motor Activity
Obesity - epidemiology - prevention & control - psychology
Public Health
Residence Characteristics
Sex Factors
Skinfold thickness
Time Factors
Abstract
The main objective of the study was to assess to what degree nine and fifteen year old Icelandic children followed the national physical activity (PA) guidelines for children set forth by the Icelandic Public Health Institute, which recommend no less than 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity a day (MVPA).
The study was conducted between September 2003 and January 2004 at eighteen randomly selected schools in the capital area of Reykjavik and towns and rural areas in the northeast. All nine years old (N=662) and fifteen years old (N=661) students were offered to participate. Half of the children were randomly chosen to partake in the PA part of the study where 176 nine-year-old and 162 fifteen-year-old children yielded usable data. We measured participants' height, weight and skinfold thickness and their PA by ActiGraphâ?¢ with respect to moderate-to-vigorous intensity (defined as counts >3400 cpm) and average volume.
Only 5% of 9-year-old and 9% of 15 year-old students followed the recommended PA guidelines of at least 60 minutes a day of MVPA. MVPA was positively associated with sex (being a boy) and age, but negatively associated with skinfold thickness. Those living in the capital area of Reykjavik rather than in smaller towns and rural areas were likelier to accrue more minutes of MVPA per day.
The results highlight the importance of developing PA interventions targeting children of school age. It is important to research and evaluate different ways as to how these interventions should best be conducted. Key words: physical activity, children, body composition, accelerometers.
Notes
Comment In: Laeknabladid. 2011 Feb;97(2):7121339519
PubMed ID
21339521 View in PubMed
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