The purpose of this study was to determine diet quality and physical activity behaviours of grade 6 students by sex and body weight status, and to determine the associations between diet quality and physical activity behaviours. The Web-based Food Behaviour Questionnaire, which included a 24-h diet recall and the modified Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C), was administered to a cross-section of schools (n = 405 students from 15 schools). Measured height and weight were used to calculate body mass index and weight status (Cole et al. 2000). A Canadian version of the Healthy Eating Index (HEI-C) was used to describe overall diet quality. The mean HEI-C was 69.6 (13.2) with the majority (72%) falling into the needs improvement category. The overall mean physical activity score was 3.7 out of a maximum of 5, with obese subjects being less active compared with normal weight and overweight (p
Department of Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio Campus, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio, Finland. Electronic address: Anne.Jaaskelainen@uef.fi.
Breakfast consumption and meal frequencies have been linked to the risk of obesity in youth but their associations with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in young populations are yet to be studied. We examined associations of three meal patterns on weekdays--five meals including breakfast, =four meals including breakfast and =four meals without breakfast--with overweight/obesity and MetS components in Finnish adolescents.
A population-based sample of 16-year-old boys and girls (n = 6247) from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 was used. Adolescents were clinically examined and dietary data were collected using self-administered questionnaires. Overweight/obesity and MetS features were defined according to the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs and the International Diabetes Federation MetS paediatric criteria and their associations with meal patterns assessed using logistic regression, adjusted separately for early life factors (birth size, maternal health) and later childhood factors (health behaviours, weight status, parental education). After adjustment for early life factors, the adolescents who ate five meals/day were at lower risk for overweight/obesity (OR [95% CI] for boys: 0.47 [0.34, 0.65]; girls: 0.57 [0.41, 0.79]), abdominal obesity (OR [95% CI] for boys: 0.32 [0.22, 0.48]; girls: 0.54 [0.39, 0.75]) and hypertriglyceridaemia (boys only). Adjusting for later childhood factors, the five-meal-a-day pattern was associated with decreased odds of overweight/obesity (OR [95% CI] for boys: 0.41 [0.29, 0.58]; girls: 0.63 [0.45, 0.89]) and abdominal obesity in boys (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.16, 0.63).
Among 16-year-olds, the five-meal-a-day pattern was robustly associated with reduced risks of overweight/obesity in both genders and abdominal obesity in boys.
To examine objectively measured physical activity level, organized sports participation and active commuting to school in relation to mathematic performance and inhibitory control in adolescents.
The design was cross-sectional. A convenient sample of 869 sixth and seventh grade students (12-14 years) was invited to participate in the study. A total of 568 students fulfilled the inclusion criteria and comprised the final sample for this study. Mathematic performance was assessed by a customized test and inhibitory control was assessed by a modified Eriksen flanker task. Physical activity was assessed with GT3X and GT3X+ accelerometers presented in sex-specific quartiles of mean counts per minute and mean minutes per day in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Active commuting and sports participation was self-reported. Mixed model regression was applied. Total physical activity level was stratified by bicycling status in order to bypass measurement error subject to the accelerometer.
Non-cyclists in the 2nd quartile of counts per minute displayed a higher mathematic score, so did cyclists in the 2nd and 3rd quartile of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity relative to the least active quartile. Non-cyclists in the 3rd quartile of counts per minute had an improved reaction time and cyclists in the 2nd quartile of counts per minute and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity displayed an improved accuracy, whereas non-cyclists in the 2nd quartile of counts per minute showed an inferior accuracy relative to the least active quartile. Bicycling to school and organized sports participation were positively associated with mathematic performance.
Sports participation and bicycling were positively associated with mathematic performance. Results regarding objectively measured physical activity were mixed. Although, no linear nor dose-response relationship was observed there was no indication of a higher activity level impairing the scholastic or cognitive performance.
We sought to evaluate the relationship between the perception of being overweight and BMI (body mass index) when participants were adolescents and their cigarette smoking as young adults. In 1993, 1598 students in grade 6 from 107 schools in Scarborough (Ontario) completed the base line questionnaire. Of these, 1,543, 1,455 and 1,254 responded at follow-ups in grades 8 and 11, and as young adults (in 2002), respectively. Reported smoking behavior was used to categorize people as current and never smokers. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate BMI. Girls who thought themselves overweight in grades 8 and 11 were more likely to be smoking as young adults (odds ratios of 1.778 and 1.627, respectively). Boys with higher self-reported BMIs in grades 8 and 11 were more likely to be smokers as young adults (odds ratios of 1.115 and 1.095, respectively). These findings provide evidence of the longitudinal effect of perception of being overweight as an adolescent on smoking as a young adult and suggest possible ways of averting smoking behavior.
To examine how clusters of energy balance-related behaviours (EBRBs), including sleep related factors, were associated with overweight among adolescents.
In Finland, 4262 adolescents, aged 13-15, participated in the cross-national Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study. The adolescents completed questionnaires assessing EBRBs [sleep duration, discrepancy and quality, physical activity (PA), screen time, junk food, fruit, and vegetable intake] and height and weight. Clusters were identified with ?-means cluster analysis and their associations with overweight with logistic regression analyses.
Common clusters for boys and girls were labelled "Healthy lifestyle" and "High screen time, unhealthy lifestyle". In addition, the cluster "Low/moderate screen time, unhealthy lifestyle" was identified among boys, and the cluster "Poor sleep, unhealthy lifestyle" among girls. Only girls in the cluster "High screen time, unhealthy lifestyle" were at increased risk for overweight.
Girls, whose EBRB was characterized by high screen time and low PA, but not with poor sleep, were at increased risk for overweight. Future studies should examine ways to promote PA among adolescent girls with high interest in screen-based activities.
To examine the prevalence of weight-related concerns, unhealthy weight-control behaviour, and associated risky behaviour among adolescent girls, and to ascertain whether these girls had discussed a healthy weight with their physicians.
Anonymous, self-report, cross-sectional survey.
Four high schools in rural Nova Scotia.
Adolescent girls in grades 10 to 12.
Weight perception, prevalence of weight-control behaviour, associations between weight perception and risky behaviour, associations between disordered eating behaviour and other risky behaviour.
Overall response rate was 76%. Half the 1133 participants saw themselves as not being the "right" weight; 60% were trying to lose weight. During the past 30 days, 16% of the girls were attempting to control or lose weight and had engaged in disordered eating behaviour. In univariate analysis, perception of being either overweight or underweight was significantly associated with suicidal thoughts, suicide planning, and risk of depression. In multivariate analysis, positive associations were found between disordered eating behaviour and suicidal thoughts (odds ratio [OR] 4.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.6 to 6.7), suicide planning (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.7 to 4.7), suicide attempts (OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.8 to 6.6), and ever having had vaginal intercourse (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.5). Only 22% of respondents had spoken with a doctor about a healthy weight.
Weight concerns are prevalent among adolescent girls in Nova Scotia. Many of them, especially those who see themselves as overweight or underweight, engage in unhealthy weight-control methods. Perceived underweight and overweight and disordered eating behaviour have strong associations with depression and self-harming behaviour. Few participants had discussed a healthy weight with a physician. Health professionals should be aware of the associations between weight perception and disordered eating behaviour and other risky behaviour.
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Low socioeconomic status (SES) is a risk factor for obesity. However, few studies have used a multilevel analysis to determine the influence of both individual- and area-level determinants of SES on obesity, and these studies have been limited to adults.
The primary objective was to examine associations between individual- and area-level measures of SES and obesity among adolescents by using a multilevel analytic approach. A secondary objective was to examine associations between individual- and area-level measures of SES with unhealthy eating and physical inactivity.
The study sample consisted of 6684 youth in grades 6-10 from 169 schools across Canada. Individual-level SES exposures included material wealth and perceived family wealth. Area-level SES exposures included unemployment rate, percentage of adult residents with less than a high school education, and average employment income from head of household. Associations between SES and the outcome measures were examined by using multilevel logistic regression procedures that modeled students (individual level) nested within schools (area level).
Both individual-level and all 3 area-level SES measures were inversely associated with obesity. The odds for unhealthy eating were increased for those living in an area with a low percentage of residents with a high school education. The odds of being physically inactive increased with decreasing levels of material wealth and perception of family wealth.
Individual- and area-level SES measures were independently related to obesity, which suggests that both individual and environmental approaches may be required to curtail adolescent obesity.
Childhood overweight and obesity is a major public health issue. A better understanding of factors associated with sedentary behaviours would provide valuable insight for tailoring interventions to prevent or reduce overweight among youth.
Data were collected from 25,416 grade 9 to 12 students attending 76 secondary schools in Ontario, Canada, using the Physical Activity Module of the School Health Action, Planning and Evaluation System (SHAPES). Sex specific multivariate logistic regression analyses were then used to examine how physical activity, BMI, social influences, and smoking behaviour were associated with screen time, time spent reading, and time spent on homework.
The average screen time per day was 2.7 (+/-1.7) hours, yet 48.1% of students reported spending less than one hour reading per week and 30.2% spent less than an hour of time on homework per week. Among males, being underweight ( or = 85% percentile BMI, adjusted for age and sex) was associated with less time spent on homework (OR 0.75, 95%CI 0.65-0.85). Conversely, among females, being at risk of overweight was associated with more screen time (OR 1.24, 95%CI 1.10-1.41), and time spent reading (OR 1.19, 95%CI 1.05-1.35). Aside from BMI, other factors associated with sedentary behaviours included physical activity, parental encouragement and support for physical activity, close friend physical activity behaviour, and smoking status.
We found that students are highly involved in screen-based sedentary behaviours, but spend a limited time on more productive sedentary behaviours, like reading and homework. Developing a better understanding of sedentary behaviours is critical for preventing and reducing obesity among youth populations.
Comment In: Int J Pediatr Obes. 2008;3(2):66-818465432
The main objective of the study was to assess to what degree nine and fifteen year old Icelandic children followed the national physical activity (PA) guidelines for children set forth by the Icelandic Public Health Institute, which recommend no less than 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity a day (MVPA).
The study was conducted between September 2003 and January 2004 at eighteen randomly selected schools in the capital area of Reykjavik and towns and rural areas in the northeast. All nine years old (N=662) and fifteen years old (N=661) students were offered to participate. Half of the children were randomly chosen to partake in the PA part of the study where 176 nine-year-old and 162 fifteen-year-old children yielded usable data. We measured participants' height, weight and skinfold thickness and their PA by ActiGraphâ?¢ with respect to moderate-to-vigorous intensity (defined as counts >3400 cpm) and average volume.
Only 5% of 9-year-old and 9% of 15 year-old students followed the recommended PA guidelines of at least 60 minutes a day of MVPA. MVPA was positively associated with sex (being a boy) and age, but negatively associated with skinfold thickness. Those living in the capital area of Reykjavik rather than in smaller towns and rural areas were likelier to accrue more minutes of MVPA per day.
The results highlight the importance of developing PA interventions targeting children of school age. It is important to research and evaluate different ways as to how these interventions should best be conducted. Key words: physical activity, children, body composition, accelerometers.