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Action, prevention and epidemiology of paediatric obesity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature29463
Source
Acta Paediatr Suppl. 2005 Jun;94(448):30-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2005
Author
Inge Lissau
Author Affiliation
National Institute of Public Health, Copenhagen, Denmark. inl@niph.dk
Source
Acta Paediatr Suppl. 2005 Jun;94(448):30-7
Date
Jun-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Child
Child, Preschool
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Health Promotion - organization & administration
Humans
Male
Obesity - epidemiology - etiology - prevention & control
Risk factors
Abstract
The overall aim of this paper is to describe important issues regarding paediatric obesity as a public health problem. This paper focuses on actions taken, and on the prevalence of obesity in children, teens and adults in Denmark. In addition, the paper describes some important prevention studies, all of which are performed outside Denmark. Thus, this paper is not a classical review but rather a highlight of some aspects that the author finds important. The latest Danish national figures show a marked increase in the prevalence of obesity, especially among young men-a sevenfold increase from 1987 to 2000 (0.7 to 4.9%). Among young women aged 16-24, the increase is threefold in the same period. Among teens, the prevalence has increased by 2-3 times in recent decades. Nevertheless, compared to other European countries and the US, Denmark has a relatively low prevalence of obesity in adolescents. The present paper also covers results from prevention studies performed in both preschool and school settings. Some of these focus on the reduced intake of carbonated drinks, whereas others focus on both diet and physical exercise. Finally, this paper demonstrates that Denmark is at the forefront regarding a national action plan against obesity. Conclusion: This paper highlights some important aspects of the epidemiology, prevention and actions in the field of paediatric obesity with special focus on Denmark.
PubMed ID
16175804 View in PubMed
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Adiposity, education and weight loss effort are independently associated with energy reporting quality in the Ontario Food Survey.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature164471
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2007 Aug;10(8):803-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2007
Author
Heather Ward
Valerie Tarasuk
Rena Mendelson
Author Affiliation
Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, 150 College St, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3E2, Canada.
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2007 Aug;10(8):803-9
Date
Aug-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adiposity
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Basal Metabolism
Body mass index
Educational Status
Energy Intake - physiology
Energy Metabolism - physiology
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Multivariate Analysis
Obesity - epidemiology - psychology
Ontario - epidemiology
Self Disclosure
Weight Loss
Abstract
To examine the associations of adiposity, dietary restraint and other personal characteristics with energy reporting quality.
Secondary analysis of 230 women and 158 men from the 1997/98 Ontario Food Survey.
Energy reporting quality was estimated by ratios of energy intake (EI) to both basal metabolic rate (BMR) and total energy expenditure (TEE). Multivariate regression analyses were conducted to examine energy reporting quality between two dietary recalls and in relation to body mass index (BMI) with adjustment for potential confounders. Energy reporting quality was explored across categories of age, BMI, income, education, dieting status and food insecurity through analysis of variance (ANOVA).
From the ANOVA, energy reporting quality was associated with BMI group, age category and weight loss for men and women, as well as with education among women (P 0.05). EI:BMR and EI:TEE on the first and second 24-hour recalls were positively related (P
PubMed ID
17381922 View in PubMed
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Adiposity measures as indicators of metabolic risk factors in adolescents.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature98426
Source
Obes Facts. 2009;2(5):294-301
Publication Type
Article
Date
2009
Author
Martin Neovius
Sophia M Rossner
Karin Vågstrand
Yvonne Linné von Hausswolff-Juhlin
Johan Hoffstedt
Ulf Ekelund
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. martin.neovius@ki.se
Source
Obes Facts. 2009;2(5):294-301
Date
2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Blood Glucose - metabolism
Body Composition
Cholesterol, HDL - blood
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Humans
Insulin - blood
Male
Metabolic Syndrome X - epidemiology - metabolism
Obesity - epidemiology - metabolism
Prevalence
ROC Curve
Risk factors
Sex Distribution
Sweden - epidemiology
Triglycerides - blood
Waist Circumference
Abstract
AIM: To examine the relation between adiposity assessment methods (percentage body fat (%BF), BMI, and waist circumference (WC)) and individual metabolic risk factors (f-insulin, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides) and a combined measure of metabolic risk. METHODS: Crosssectional study of 300 males (BMI 20.8 +/- 3.0 kg/m(2)) and females (BMI 21.3 +/- 2.9 kg/m(2)) 17 years of age. F-insulin and components of the metabolic syndrome defined by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) were used as metabolic risk indicators, with samples stratified into BMI, %BF, and WC groups, respectively. Diagnostic accuracy was expressed as the area under the ROC curve (AUC). RESULTS: In males, diagnostic accuracy for HDL and f-insulin was poor to fair for BMI (AUC 0.70, p = 0.001; 0.60, p = 0.22), WC (0.68, p = 0.003; 0.63, p = 0.11), and %BF (0.65, p = 0.009; 0.66, p = 0.04). The diagnostic accuracy for triglycerides was greater for all three measures (BMI 0.92, WC 0.95, %BF 0.87; all p or =2 metabolic risk factors (AUCs 0.76-0.91, p
PubMed ID
20057196 View in PubMed
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Adjusting divergences between self-reported and measured height and weight in an adult Canadian population.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature107533
Source
Am J Health Behav. 2013 Nov;37(6):841-50
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2013
Author
Marguerite L Sagna
Donald Schopflocher
Kim Raine
Candace Nykiforuk
Ronald Plotnikoff
Author Affiliation
School of Public Health, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada. msagna@ualberta.ca
Source
Am J Health Behav. 2013 Nov;37(6):841-50
Date
Nov-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Algorithms
Anthropometry
Bias (epidemiology)
Body Height
Body mass index
Body Weight
Canada - epidemiology
Female
Health Surveys
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Obesity - epidemiology
Overweight - epidemiology
Prevalence
Self Report
Abstract
To develop algorithm equations that could be used to adjust self-reported height and weight to elicit better estimates of actual BMI.
Linear regression analyses were performed to generate equations that could predict actual height and weight from self-reported data collected through telephone interviews on a representative sample of Canadians aged 18 years or older.
There were systematic biases in self-reported height and weight, leading to an underestimation of BMI. The application of our calibration equations to self-reported data produced closer estimates to actual rates of overweight and obesity.
We advocate the use of our correction equation whenever dealing with self-reported height and weight from telephone surveys to avoid potential distortions in estimating obesity prevalence.
PubMed ID
24001633 View in PubMed
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The Adolescent Adjustment Profile (AAP) in comparisons of patients with obesity, phenylketonuria or neurobehavioural disorders.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature85797
Source
Nord J Psychiatry. 2008;62(1):66-76
Publication Type
Article
Date
2008
Author
Olsson Gunilla Maria
Mårild Staffan
Alm Jan
Brodin Ulf
Rydelius Per-Anders
Marcus Claude
Author Affiliation
Department of Neuroscience, BMC, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. gunilla.olsson@neuro.uu.se
Source
Nord J Psychiatry. 2008;62(1):66-76
Date
2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Body mass index
Brain - physiopathology
Child
Female
Humans
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology - physiopathology - psychology
Obesity - epidemiology - psychology
Phenylalanine - metabolism
Phenylketonurias - epidemiology - metabolism - psychology
Prevalence
Questionnaires
Self Concept
Severity of Illness Index
Social Adjustment
Abstract
Psychosocial development in children with chronic disease is a key issue in paediatrics. This study investigated whether psychosocial adjustment could be reliably assessed with the 42-item Adolescent Adjustment Profile (AAP) instrument. The study mainly focused on adjustment-to-obesity measurement, although it compared three patient groups with chronic conditions. All phenylketonuria (PKU) patients in Sweden between ages 9 and 18 and their parents and teachers were invited to participate. Patients with neurobehavioural syndromes and obesity were age- and gender-matched with PKU patients. Healthy children constituted a reference group. Psychosocial adjustment was measured using the AAP, which is a multi-informant questionnaire that contains four domains. Information concerning parents' socio-economic and civil status was requested separately. Respondents to the three questionnaires judged the PKU patients to be normal in all four domains. Patients with neurobehavioural syndromes demonstrated less competence and the most problems compared with the other three groups. According to the self-rating, the parent rating and the teacher rating questionnaires, obese patients had internalizing problems. The parent rating and the teacher rating questionnaire scored obese patients as having a lower work capacity than the reference group. Compared with the reference group, not only families with obese children but also families with children with neurobehavioural syndromes had significantly higher divorce rates. Obese patients were also investigated with the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), another instrument that enables comparison between two measures of adjustment. The AAP had good psychometric properties; it was judged a useful instrument in research on adolescents with chronic diseases.
PubMed ID
18389428 View in PubMed
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Adolescent bariatric surgery: the Canadian perspective.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature257199
Source
Semin Pediatr Surg. 2014 Feb;23(1):31-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2014
Author
Dafydd A Davies
Jill Hamilton
Elizabeth Dettmer
Catherine Birken
Allison Jeffery
John Hagen
Mehran Anvari
Jacob C Langer
Author Affiliation
Division of Pediatric Surgery, Dalhousie University, IWK Heath Centre, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.
Source
Semin Pediatr Surg. 2014 Feb;23(1):31-6
Date
Feb-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Bariatric Surgery - methods
Canada - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Male
National Health Programs
Ontario - epidemiology
Pediatric Obesity - epidemiology - surgery - therapy
Program Evaluation
Treatment Outcome
Weight Reduction Programs
Abstract
Canada faces a similar epidemic of obesity in their adolescent population as other Western countries. However, the development of programs to treat obesity and manage its sequelae has evolved in a unique way. This is in part due to differences in health care funding, population distribution, public demand, and availability of expertise and resources. In this article, we will describe the evolution of adolescent bariatric care in Canada and describe the current programs and future directions. The focus will be on the province of Ontario, the site of the first adolescent bariatric program in the country.
PubMed ID
24491366 View in PubMed
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Adolescent body composition and associations with body size and growth from birth to late adolescence. The Tromsø study: Fit Futures-A Norwegian longitudinal cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature300460
Source
Pediatr Obes. 2019 05; 14(5):e12492
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
05-2019
Author
Elin Evensen
Nina Emaus
Anne-Sofie Furberg
Ane Kokkvoll
Jonathan Wells
Tom Wilsgaard
Anne Winther
Guri Skeie
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Research, University Hospital of North Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
Source
Pediatr Obes. 2019 05; 14(5):e12492
Date
05-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Absorptiometry, Photon - methods
Adolescent
Adult
Birth Weight - physiology
Body Composition
Body mass index
Child
Child Development - physiology
Cohort Studies
Female
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Norway
Pediatric Obesity - epidemiology - physiopathology
Risk factors
Young Adult
Abstract
Fat and fat-free masses and fat distribution are related to cardiometabolic risk.
to explore how birth weight, childhood body mass index (BMI) and BMI gain were related to adolescent body composition and central obesity.
In a population-based longitudinal study, body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 907 Norwegian adolescents (48% girls). Associations between birth weight, BMI categories, and BMI gain were evaluated by fitting linear mixed models and conditional growth models with fat mass index (FMI, kg/m2 ), fat-free mass index (FFMI, kg/m2 ) standard deviation scores (SDS), and central obesity at 15 to 20 years, as well as change in FMI SDS and FFMI SDS between ages 15 to 17 and 18 to 20 as outcomes.
Birth weight was associated with FFMI in adolescence. Greater BMI gain in childhood, conditioned on prior body size, was associated with higher FMI, FFMI, and central overweight/obesity with the strongest associations seen at age 6 to 16.5 years: FMI SDS: ß = 0.67, 95% CI (0.63-0.71), FFMI SDS: 0.46 (0.39, 0.52), in girls, FMI SDS: 0.80 (0.75, 0.86), FFMI SDS: 0.49 (0.43, 0.55), in boys.
Compared with birth and early childhood, high BMI and greater BMI gain at later ages are strong predictors of higher fat mass and central overweight/obesity at 15 to 20 years of age.
PubMed ID
30590874 View in PubMed
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Adolescent dietary patterns in Fiji and their relationships with standardized body mass index.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature114873
Source
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2013;10:45
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Jillian T Wate
Wendy Snowdon
Lynne Millar
Melanie Nichols
Helen Mavoa
Ramneek Goundar
Ateca Kama
Boyd Swinburn
Author Affiliation
School of Health and Social Development, Deakin University, Melbourne, Australia. jwate@deakin.edu.au
Source
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2013;10:45
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Body Composition
Body Height
Body mass index
Body Weight
Diet - adverse effects
Dietary Sucrose - administration & dosage
Energy intake
Female
Fiji - epidemiology
Food Habits
Health Behavior
Humans
Male
Meals
Obesity - epidemiology - etiology
Population Groups
Reference Standards
Urban Population
Abstract
Obesity has been increasing in adolescents in Fiji and obesogenic dietary patterns need to be assessed to inform health promotion. The objective of this study was to identify the dietary patterns of adolescents in peri-urban Fiji and determine their relationships with standardized body mass index (BMI-z).
This study analysed baseline measurements from the Pacific Obesity Prevention In Communities (OPIC) Project. The sample comprised 6,871 adolescents aged 13-18 years from 18 secondary schools on the main island of Viti Levu, Fiji. Adolescents completed a questionnaire that included diet-related variables; height and weight were measured. Descriptive statistics and regression analyses were conducted to examine the associations between dietary patterns and BMI-z, while controlling for confounders and cluster effect by school.
Of the total sample, 24% of adolescents were overweight or obese, with a higher prevalence among Indigenous Fijians and females. Almost all adolescents reported frequent consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSB) (90%) and low intake of fruit and vegetables (74%). Over 25% of participants were frequent consumers of takeaways for dinner, and either high fat/salt snacks, or confectionery after school. Nearly one quarter reported irregular breakfast (24%) and lunch (24%) consumption on school days, while fewer adolescents (13%) ate fried foods after school. IndoFijians were more likely than Indigenous Fijians to regularly consume breakfast, but had a high unhealthy SSB and snack consumption.Regular breakfast (p
Notes
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PubMed ID
23570554 View in PubMed
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Adolescent self-concept and health into adulthood.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature181601
Source
Health Rep. 2003;14 Suppl:41-52
Publication Type
Article
Date
2003
Author
Jungwee Park
Author Affiliation
Health Statistics Division, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0T6. Jungwee.Park@statcan.ca
Source
Health Rep. 2003;14 Suppl:41-52
Date
2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Attitude to Health
Canada - epidemiology
Child
Cross-Sectional Studies
Depression - epidemiology - psychology
Exercise
Female
Health Behavior
Health status
Health Status Indicators
Humans
Incidence
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Obesity - epidemiology - psychology
Risk factors
Self Concept
Sex Distribution
Abstract
This article examines factors associated with adolescent self-concept and the impact of adolescent self-concept on psychological and physical health and health behaviour in young adulthood.
The data are from the household cross-sectional (1994/95) and longitudinal (1994/95 to 2000/01) components of Statistics Canada's National Population Health Survey.
Scores on self-concept indicators in 1994/95 were compared between the sexes and age groups (12 to 15 versus 16 to 19). Multivariate analyses were used to examine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between adolescent self-concept and depression, self-perceived health, physical activity and obesity, controlling for other possible confounders.
Self-concept tends to be low among girls compared with boys. Cross-sectionally, adolescent self-concept was associated with household income and emotional support. For girls and for young adolescents, a weak self-concept in 1994/95 was related to the incidence of depression over the next six years; it was also predictive of physical inactivity among boys, and obesity among both sexes. A strong self-concept had a positive long-term effect on girls' self-perceived health.
PubMed ID
14768293 View in PubMed
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Source
Health Rep. 2006 Aug;17(3):9-25
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2006
Author
Michael Tjepkema
Author Affiliation
Health Statistics Division at Statistics Canada, Toronto Regional Office, 25 St. Clair Avenue E., Toronto, Ontario M4T 1M4. Michael.Tjepkema@statcan.ca
Source
Health Rep. 2006 Aug;17(3):9-25
Date
Aug-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Body mass index
Canada - epidemiology
Chi-Square Distribution
Female
Humans
Life Style
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Nutrition Surveys
Obesity - epidemiology
Prevalence
Social Class
United States - epidemiology
Abstract
Based on direct measures of height and weight, this article compares the prevalence of obesity among adults aged 18 or older in 1978/79 and 2004. Prevalence by demographic, socio-economic and lifestyle characteristics is presented, along with associations between obesity and selected chronic conditions. Canadian and US data are also compared.
Data are from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey: Nutrition, the 1978/79 Canada Health Survey and the 1986 to 1992 Canadian Heart Health Surveys. US data are from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
Descriptive statistics were used to estimate the proportion of adults who were obese in 2004 in relation to selected characteristics. Logistic regression models were used to examine relationships between obesity and high blood pressure, diabetes and heart disease, controlling for socio-economic status and other risk factors such as smoking and physical activity.
In 2004, 23% of adults, 5.5 million people aged 18 or older, were obese--up substantially from 14% in 1978/79. An additional 36% (8.6 million) were overweight. Obese individuals tended to have sedentary leisure-time pursuits and to consume fruit and vegetables infrequently. As body mass index (BMI) increased, so did an individual's likelihood of reporting high blood pressure, diabetes and heart disease.
PubMed ID
16981483 View in PubMed
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501 records – page 1 of 51.