Limited research has examined the association of individual trust, participation and social capital with obesity using objective measures of waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI) and network measures of social capital.
Data were obtained from a representative sample of Montreal residents. Participants completed questionnaires that included a position generator for collecting network social capital data. Measures of WC, height and weight were collected by registered nurses. To estimate associations with cardiometabolic risk, data on WC for individuals with BMI between 18.5 and 34.9 were extracted for analysis (n = 291). Using a proportional odds model with clustered robust standard errors, we evaluated the association of three different measures of individual social capital with elevated and substantially elevated WC and overweight and obesity categories of BMI. These measures were then evaluated in their associations with elevated WC and BMI, adjusting for socio-demographic and behavioral covariates.
Network social capital was inversely associated with the likelihood of being in an elevated WC risk category (odds ratio (OR) = 0.81, 95% confidence intervals (CI: 0.69, 0.96) and higher BMI category (OR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.71, 0.92).
Higher individual network social capital is associated with a lower likelihood of elevated WC risk and overweight and obesity.
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of overweight and obesity in children is steadily increasing in many countries. Dental caries and obesity are both multifactorial diseases and are associated with dietary habits. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between body weight status in adolescents and snacking habits in early childhood to approximal caries prevalence at 15 years of age. METHODS: This study is part of a series of surveys of oral health in children followed from the ages of 1 year to 15 years. Body adiposity status was estimated at 13.5-16.4 years using the International Obesity Task Force cut-off values [age-specific body mass index (isoBMI)]. Information about snacking habits in early childhood was collected from interviews conducted at 1 year and 3 years. Approximal caries information was obtained from bitewing radiographs at 15 years. Data related to isoBMI and approximal caries were available in 402 teenagers. RESULT: Adolescents with isoBMI > or = 25 (n = 64) had an approximal caries prevalence that was a mean of 1.6 times higher than those with isoBMI
The aim of this study was to provide percentile values for several indices of central adiposity in 9- and 15-year-old Swedish children from the European Youth Heart Study (N=1,075). Age- and sex-specific percentiles for waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-height ratio and waist-to-hip ratio were provided. No significant differences were found in the proportion of individuals with a high waist-to-height ratio (using the 0.500 cut-off) between age or sex groups. The percentile values for waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio provided in this paper, together with data from other cohorts, could help to establish international criteria for defining central obesity. For comparative purposes, future studies reporting reference data for waist circumference and/or waist-to-height ratio, should also report age- and sex-specific height values. More studies involving children of different ages and from different regions in Scandinavia are needed.
The aim of the study was to describe the body composition of Finnish adults, especially by education, and to investigate whether fat-free mass (FFM) can explain educational gradients relating to body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR).
Data for this cross-sectional study were based on data collected in 2000-2001 for the Health 2000 Survey. Of the nationally representative sample of 8,028 Finnish men and women aged 30 years and older, 6,300 (78.5%) were included in the study. Body composition measurements were carried out in the health examination, where FFM was assessed with eight-polar bioelectrical impedance analysis. Questions on education were included in the health interview.
The mean FFM varied by education in older (>or= 65 y.) men only. In the middle-aged group (30-64 y.), highly educated men were less likely to belong to the lowest quintile of FFM (OR 0.67, 95%CI 0.48-0.93) compared with the least educated subjects. The level of education was inversely associated with the prevalence of high BMI and WHR in middle-aged men. In women, the respective associations were found both in middle-aged women and their older counterparts. Adjustment for FFM slightly strengthened the associations of education with BMI and WHR.
The association between education and FFM is weak. Educational gradients of high BMI and high WHR cannot be explained by FFM.
Cites: Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1999 Nov;31(11 Suppl):S590-610593533
To examine whether infant growth rates are influenced by fetal growth characteristics and are associated with the risks of overweight and obesity in early childhood.
This study was embedded in the Generation R Study, a population-based prospective cohort study from fetal life onward.
Fetal growth characteristics (femur length (FL) and estimated fetal weight (EFW)) were assessed in the second and third trimesters and at birth (length and weight). Infant peak weight velocity (PWV), peak height velocity (PHV), and body mass index at adiposity peak (BMIAP) were derived for 6267 infants with multiple height and weight measurements.
EFW measured during the second trimester was positively associated with PWV and BMIAP during infancy. Subjects with a smaller weight gain between the third trimester and birth had a higher PWV. FL measured during the second trimester was positively associated with PHV. Gradual length gain between the second and third trimesters and between the third trimester and birth were associated with higher PHV. Compared with infants in the lowest quintile, the infants in the highest quintile of PWV had strongly increased risks of overweight/obesity at the age of 4 years (odds ratio (95% confidence interval): 15.01 (9.63, 23.38)).
Fetal growth characteristics strongly influence infant growth rates. A higher PWV, which generally occurs in the first month after birth, was associated with an increased risk of overweight and obesity at 4 years of age. Longer follow-up studies are necessary to determine how fetal and infant growth patterns affect the risk of disease in later life.
To evaluate the interaction effects of gestational diabetes (GDM) with obesity on perinatal outcomes.
A population-based cohort study in Sweden excluding women without pre-gestational diabetes with a singleton birth between 1998 and 2012. Logistic regression was performed to evaluate the potential independent associations of GDM and BMI with adverse perinatal outcomes as well as their interactions. Main outcome measures were malformations, stillbirths, perinatal mortality, low Apgar score, fetal distress, prematurity and Erb's palsy.
Some 1,294,006 women were included, with a GDM prevalence of 1% (n = 14,833). The rate of overweight/obesity was 67.7% in the GDM-group and 36.1% in the non-GDM-group. No significant interaction existed. Offspring of women with GDM had significantly increased risk of malformations, adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.16 (95% confidence intervals 1.06-1.26), prematurity, aOR 1.86 (1.76-1. 98), low Apgar score, aOR 1.36 (1.10-1.70), fetal distress, aOR 1.09 (1.02-1.16) and Erb's palsy aOR 2.26 (1.79-2.86). No risk for stillbirth or perinatal mortality was seen. Offspring of overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m2 ), obese (BMI 30-34.9 kg/m2 ) and severely obese women (BMI = 35.0 kg/m2 ) had significantly increased risks of all outcomes including stillbirth 1.51 (1.40-1.62) to 2.85 (2.52-3.22) and perinatal mortality 1.49 (1.40-1.59) to 2.83 (2.54-3.15).
There is no interaction effect between GDM and BMI for the studied outcomes. Higher BMI and GDM are major independent risk factors for most serious adverse perinatal outcomes. More effective pre-pregnancy and antenatal interventions are required to prevent serious adverse pregnancy outcomes among women with either GDM or high BMI.
Maternal diet during pregnancy may contribute to the risk of offspring adiposity.
The objective of the study is to explore the associations between maternal antenatal dietary fatty acid intake and the risk of offspring overweight and obesity at the ages of 2 to 7?years.
In a prospective Finnish birth cohort with 3807 mother-child pairs, maternal diet in late pregnancy was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. Intakes of total fatty acids and individual saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were calculated. Generalized estimating equation models were used to study the associations of maternal dietary variables with repeatedly measured offspring overweight and obesity.
In girls, maternal intake ratio of n-6:n-3 PUFAs had a U-shaped association with obesity (adjusted OR for the lowest 2.0 [95% CI 1.27-3.20] and the highest 1.7 [1.03-2.73] vs. the two middle quartiles of n-6:n-3 PUFAs, p?=?0.01). In boys, arachidonic acid (20:4n-6): docosahexaenoic acid?+?eicosapentaenoic acid ratio was associated with obesity (adjusted OR for the lowest 1.0 [0.60-1.57] and the highest 0.5 [0.26-0.88] vs. the two middle quartiles, p?=?0.02). Saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids were not associated with overweight or obesity in either sex.
Maternal intakes of PUFAs in late pregnancy were associated with risk of later obesity differently in girls and boys.
Maternal obesity has long-term consequences for the offspring's later health, including an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The underlying mechanisms explaining these associations are, however, not fully understood.
A total of 2003 individuals from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study born 1934-44, underwent measurements of body size, body composition, and clinical characteristics at a mean age of 62 years. Data on maternal anthropometry were available from hospital records.
Maternal BMI was positively associated with BMI in the offspring. Higher maternal BMI was associated with less favorable body composition in the offspring. There was a significant interaction between birth weight and maternal BMI on offspring body fat percentage (P for interaction 0.003). In mothers with low BMI, a higher offspring birth weight was associated with lower fat percentage, while among those with maternal BMI in the highest fourth, higher offspring birth weight predicted higher body fat percentage.
Our findings suggest that a disadvantageous body composition is programmed in early life. This may in part underlie the association between maternal obesity and later cardio-metabolic health of the offspring. These findings support the importance of prevention of overweight in women of child-bearing age.
In this review, we discuss the impact of migration on the incidence and prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in different ethnic groups and populations. We also analyze the determinants of such phenomena in view of the global increase in the migration and escalating prevalence of obesity and T2DM. The risk escalation of the obesity and T2DM followed a gradient, as migrants (Blacks, Hispanics, Chinese, South Asians, etc.) became more affluent and urbanized, indicating an important role of environmental factors. A stepwise increase in the prevalence of obesity in Blacks along the path of migration (5% in Nigeria, 23% in Jamaica, and 39% in the United States) is a classic example. Furthermore, South Asian migrants, who are particularly predisposed to develop insulin resistance and T2DM, showed nearly four times prevalence rates of T2DM than rural sedentee populations. Similar observations were also reported in intracountry migrants and resettled indigenous populations. The determinants were found to include nutrition transition, physical inactivity, gene-environment interaction, stress, and other factors such as ethnic susceptibility. However, certain contradictory trends were also seen in some migrant communities and have been explained by various phenomena such as healthy migrant effect, "salmon bias", and adherence to traditional diets. A review of the evidence suggests a critical role of environmental factors in conferring an increased risk of obesity and T2DM. The important contributory factors to this phenomenon were urbanization, mechanization, and changes in nutrition and lifestyle behaviors, but the role of stress and as yet unknown factors remain to be determined.
Childhood poverty heightens the risk of obesity in adulthood, but the age at which this risk appears is unclear. We analysed the association between poverty trajectories with body mass index (BMI) Z-scores or the risk of being overweight or obese across four ages (6 years, 8 years, 10 years and 12 years) in childhood.
Data were from the 1998-2010 'Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development' cohort (n=698). Poverty was defined using Statistics Canada's thresholds, and trajectories were characterised with a Latent Class Growth Analysis. Multivariable linear and logistic regression models adjusted for sex, whether the mother was an immigrant, maternal education and birth weight.
Four income trajectories were identified: a reference group (stable non-poor), and 3 higher exposure categories (increasing likelihood of poverty, decreasing likelihood of poverty or stable poor). Compared with children from stable non-poor households, children from stable poor households had BMI Z-scores that were 0.39 and 0.43 larger than children from stable non-poor households at age 10 years and 12 years, respectively (p