The aim of this study was to describe dietary glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) values in the diets of Danish children, and to examine the associations between dietary GI, GL and body fatness. Data were collected during 1997-8 as part of the European Youth Heart Study. The study population comprised 485 children aged 10 years and 364 children aged 16 years from Odense County, Denmark. Dietary GI and GL were estimated using international food tables, and the associations between energy-adjusted dietary GI, GL and body fatness were analysed by multiple linear regression. The mean daily dietary GI value was 85 (SD 6.9) with a range of 62-111. No significant differences were found between age groups and gender. The daily dietary GL was higher among boys aged 16, with a GL of 330 (sd 95) (P
Results from short-term studies demonstrate that energy density influences energy intake, but in children and adolescents the long-term effects of energy density and obesity development are sparse. We examined the longitudinal relationship between dietary energy density, fiber intake, and body weight change over 3 years among Danish children.
Multiple regression analyses were performed using anthropometric and dietary data of 398 boys and girls (8-10 years) who were enrolled in 1997/1998 and followed up in 2000/2001. Validated 24-hour recall interviews were conducted in order to collect dietary energy intake. Overweight was defined as 1.05 SD, equivalent to the 85th percentile, of age- and sex-specific BMI z-score reference values.
An inverse association between fiber intake and subsequent excess weight gain was observed among the normal weight boys. In overweight boys, there was a direct association with excess weight gain. A high energy intake was associated with a higher weight gain among overweight than among normal-weight boys. No significant association between dietary energy density and subsequent excess weight change was seen. The prevalence of overweight increased from 27.1 to 29.9%. Mean Deltaz-score was +0.1 and +0.4 for boys and girls, respectively.
Dietary energy density was not associated with 3-year weight gain in boys and girls. Only energy and fiber intakes were related to weight gain, but in different ways for subgroups of normal-weight and overweight boys.
Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages is associated with obesity, and this association may be modified by a genetic predisposition to obesity.
We examined the interactions between a molecular genetic predisposition to various aspects of obesity and the consumption of soft drinks, which are a major part of sugar-sweetened beverages, in relation to changes in adiposity measures.
A total of 4765 individuals were included in the study. On the basis of 50 obesity-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms that are associated with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), or the waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (WHRBMI), the following 4 genetic predisposition scores (GRSs) were constructed: a complete genetic predisposition score including all 50 single nucleotide polymorphisms (GRSComplete), a genetic predisposition score including BMI-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (GRSBMI), a genetic predisposition score including waist circumference-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (GRSWC), and a genetic predisposition score including the waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for BMI-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (GRSWHR). Associations between soft drink intake and the annual change (?) in body weight (BW), WC, or waist circumference adjusted for BMI (WCBMI) and possible interactions with the GRSs were examined with the use of linear regression analyses and meta-analyses.
For each soft drink serving per day, soft drink consumption was significantly associated with a higher ?BW of 0.07 kg/y (95% CI: 0.01, 0.13 kg/y; P = 0.020) but not with the ?WC or ?WCBMI In analyses of the ?BW, we showed an interaction only with the GRSWC (per risk allele for each soft drink serving per day: -0.06 kg/y; 95% CI: -0.10, -0.02 kg/y; P = 0.006). In analyses of the ?WC, we showed interactions only with the GRSBMI and GRSComplete [per risk allele for each soft drink serving per day: 0.05 cm/y (95% CI: 0.02, 0.09 cm/y; P = 0.001) and 0.05 cm/y (95% CI: 0.02, 0.07 cm/y; P = 0.001), respectively]. Nearly identical results were observed in analyses of the ?WCBMI CONCLUSIONS: A genetic predisposition to a high WC may attenuate the association between soft drink intake and BW gain. A genetic predisposition to high BMI as well as a genetic predisposition to high BMI, WC, and WHRBMI combined may strengthen the association between soft drink intake and WC gain. However, the public health impact may be limited.
OBJECTIVE: To examine to what extent the obesity epidemic is a general phenomenon in adults by assessing the secular change, by birth cohort and age, in the prevalence of obesity and median body mass index (BMI) in Danish men and women measured between 1964 and 1994. DESIGN: Multiple cross-sectional population surveys. SETTING: The greater Copenhagen area of Denmark. SUBJECTS: The study included 17,065 men (30 336 observations) and 13,417 women (24,065 observations), aged 20-84 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Trends in median BMI and prevalence of obesity estimated from measured height and weight in 10-year age groups. RESULTS: In general the prevalence of obesity was increasing, although in an irregular way: among men in two phases, during the 1970s and 1990s and among women only during the 1990s. Great heterogeneity was observed between birth cohorts and age groups. There was only little indication of an increasing trend in obesity prevalence for women, except for the 55-64-year-olds. In men, the prevalence of obesity was increasing in all age groups except in the youngest ones, and it was statistically significant only for men aged 35-74 years. There was no significant linear change in median BMI in any group, except for an increasing trend among men aged 50 years and above. CONCLUSION: Although the overall Danish trend for obesity prevalence, similar to trends world-wide, showed a marked increase, the trend was very heterogeneous and generally neither uniform nor significantly positive; the changes were irregular, different among men and women, and different in the different age and birth cohorts. The obesity problem in middle-aged and older men of certain birth cohorts poses a specific public health challenge. Future studies of determinants behind the heterogeneity in the development of the obesity epidemic may provide clues to its causes.
Our objectives were to estimate the degree of misreporting energy intake (EI) and analyze associations with previous BMI, current BMI, or both. The study was part of the Adiposity and Genetics Study follow-up study including 309 Danish men (age 40-65 y) originally sampled from the obligatory draft board examination. Height and weight were measured at the mean ages of 20 (draft board), 33, 44, and 49 y (current age). Obesity was categorized as BMI >or= 31 kg/m(2). Dietary intake for 7 d and physical activity (PA) level (PAL) were self-reported. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was measured in a ventilated hood system. By comparing EI with energy expenditure and assuming energy balance, reporting accuracy (RA) was estimated as EI/(RMR.PAL). A plausibility interval was calculated to encompass specific variation components of EI, RMR, and PAL; the specific 95% plausibility interval was 1.00 +/- 0.35. Participants were categorized as underreporters (RA 1.35) of EI. The relation between RA and BMI was studied through linear regression analysis. Overall, the RA was (mean +/- SE) 0.76 +/- 0.01. Of 309 participants, 35% underreported and 7% overreported. Whether stratified for current BMI or draft board BMI, the obese men were more likely to underreport than those who were not obese. Among those currently not obese, underreporting was more prevalent among those who were obese at the draft board examination (44%) than among those who were not (21%). Regression analysis showed that both previous and current BMI and their combination were significantly associated with RA. Thus, underreporting of dietary intake seems to be associated with not only current BMI but also with current BMI in combination with previous BMI.
Københavns Universitet, Det Sundhedsvidenskabelige Fakultet, Institut for Folkesundhedsvidenskab, og Københavns Universitetshospital, Center for Sundhed og Samfund, Enheden for Epidemiologisk Kostforskning. firstname.lastname@example.org
In the last 25-30 years, there has been a marked increase in the prevalence of obesity within almost all age groups of the Danish population. The largest increase has been documented in studies based on objective data from total populations, and the latest data show the increase as continuing. The Danish studies show heterogeneity in the development of the obesity epidemic within various birth cohorts over time. This indicates a need for further etiological research, not only into behavioural factors but also into early life factors that may explain some of this pattern.