Metabolic disorders are relatively uncommon in young women, but may increase with obesity. The associations between body mass index (BMI) and risks of diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia in apparently healthy, young women have been insufficiently investigated, and are the aims of this study.
Women giving birth during the years 2004-2009, with no history of cardiovascular disease, renal insufficiency, pregnancy-associated metabolic disorders, diabetes, hypertension, or dyslipidemia were identified in nationwide registers. Women were categorized as underweight (BMI
To determine whether obesity is associated with a variety of psychiatric outcomes after taking into account physical health conditions.
Data came from the public use dataset of the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 1.2 (age 15 years and older, N=36,984). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition psychiatric diagnoses of major depressive disorder, mania, panic attacks, panic disorder, social phobia, agoraphobia, alcohol dependence, and drug dependence were examined, as was suicidal behavior (ideation or attempts). Multiple logistic regression was utilized to examine the association between obesity (defined as body mass index >or=30) and mental health outcomes. Covariates in the regressions included sociodemographic factors and a measure of physical illness burden (the Charlson Comorbidity Index).
In adjusted models, obesity was positively related to several lifetime psychiatric disorders (depression, mania, panic attacks, social phobia, agoraphobia without panic disorder), any lifetime mood or anxiety disorder, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) range: 1.22-1.58]. Obesity was similarly positively associated with past-year depression, mania, panic attacks, social phobia, any anxiety disorder, and suicidal ideation (AOR range: 1.24-1.52), and negatively associated with past-year drug dependence (AOR=0.53, 95% CI 0.31-0.89). Most of these associations were found to be specific to women, while some were also present in men.
Independent of physical health conditions, obesity was associated with psychiatric disorders and suicidal behavior in the Canadian population. Possible mechanisms and clinical implications of these findings are considered.
The Pregnancy Obesity Nutrition and Child Health study is a longitudinal study of reproductive health. Here we analyzed body composition of normal-weight and obese Swedish women by three methods during each trimester of pregnancy. Cross-sectional and longitudinal fat mass estimates using quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR) and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) (Tanita MC-180MA-III) were compared with fat mass determined by air displacement plethysmography (ADP) in pregnancy weeks 8-12, 24-26, and 35-37 in normal-weight women (n =?122, BMI?=?22.1?±?1.6 kg/m2) and obese women (n =?29, BMI?=?34.6?±?3.6 kg/m2). ADP results were calculated from pregnancy-adjusted fat-free mass densities. Mean fat mass by QMR and ADP were similar in obese women, although with wide limits of agreement. In normal-weight women, QMR overestimated mean fat mass in all trimesters, with systematic overestimation at low fat mass values in trimesters 1 and 3. In obese women, fat mass by BIA was grossly underestimated and imprecise in all trimesters, especially at higher values in trimester 2. In normal-weight women, fat mass by BIA was moderately lower than by ADP in trimester 1, similar in trimester 2, and moderately higher in trimester 3. QMR and ADP assessed fat mass changes similarly in obese women, whereas BIA overestimated fat mass changes in normal-weight women. Mean fat mass and fat mass changes by QMR and pregnancy-adjusted ADP were similar in pregnant obese women. Mean fat mass by QMR and fat mass changes by BIA were higher than corresponding values determined by pregnancy-adjusted ADP in normal-weight women.
The prevalence of lifestyle related diseases is higher among people with psychotic disorders than the general population. The aim was to assess dietary intake of young people with psychotic disorders for the first time in Iceland.
Subjects were young people (n=48, age 18-30y) with psychotic disorders. Dietary intake was assessed by a 24-hour recall in July-August 2016, and compared with official recommendations and intake of the general public (n=250, age 18-30y). Body weight in the past eight to 12 months, was retrieved from medical records.
Consumption of fruits, fish, dairy products, vegetable and fish oil was significantly lower among subjects when compared with the general public, while their soft drink and sweets consumption was higher (p5% of their initial body weight in the past 8-2 months.
Diet of young people with psychotic disorders is not consistent with recommendations and is worse than the diet of their peers in the general population. It is important to find ways to improve the diet and thereby nutrient intake of the group. Key words: psychotic disorders, schizophrenia, recommended dietary allowances, fatty acids, omega-3, vitamin D. Correspondence: Ingibjorg Gunnarsdottir, firstname.lastname@example.org.
Good cardiorespiratory fitness has been suggested to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in obesity. We explored the association of fitness with the prevalences of major cardiovascular risk factor like hypertension (HT), diabetes and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in overweight and obese subjects.
Clinical data from 491 participants in the FAT associated CardiOvasculaR dysfunction (FATCOR) study were analyzed. Physical fitness was assessed by ergospirometry, and subjects with at least good level of performance for age and sex were classified as fit. HT subtypes were identified from clinic and 24-h?ambulatory blood pressure in combination. Diabetes was diagnosed by oral glucose tolerance test. MetS was defined by the American Heart Association and National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute criteria. The participants were on average 48 years old (60% women), and mean body mass index (BMI) was 32?kg/m(2). 28% of study participants were classified as fit. Fitness was not associated with lower prevalences of HT or HT subtypes, diabetes, MetS or individual MetS components (all p?>?0.05). In multivariable regression analysis, being fit was characterized by lower waist circumference, BMI?
Present study examines the prevalence of type 2 diabetes (DM2) in patients attending cardiac rehabilitation (CR) compared to the general population utilising data from the Icelandic Heart Association population study. The study also examined the efficacy of CR for promoting health behaviors.
A prospective study among DM2 patients attending CR at Reykjalundur Rehabilitation centre. The DM2 group was compared to other cardiac patients, with respect to obesity and exercise capacity at the beginning and end of 4-6 weeks of CR. Additionally, in the DM2 group, weight, smoking cessation, physical activity and walking capacity were assessed at 3 and 6 months follow-ups.
The prevalence of DM2 was 2-4 times higher in CR participants than in the general population. Compared to other CR participants, the DM2 group was heavier, with increased waist circumference and less exercise capacity. During the CR both groups lost weight and waist circumference decreased to similar extent, but the exercise capacity increased less in the DM2 group. In follow up after 6 months the DM2 groupÂ´s weight and glucose values were back to same level as before CR, but waist circumference was still decreased and they retained increased physical activity and walking capacity.
DM2 is more prevalent among patients in cardiac rehabilitation than in the general population. The DM2 group was more obese, had lower exercise capacity and responded somewhat less to CR than other cardiac patients. Follow up after 6 months did however show that they continued their regular exercise and walking capacity was still retained.
The degree of misclassification of obesity and undernutrition among elders owing to inaccurate height measurements is investigated using height predicted by knee height (KH) and demispan equations.
Cross-sectional investigation was done among a random heterogeneous sample from five municipalities in Southern Sweden from a general population study 'Good Aging in Skåne' (GÅS). The sample comprised two groups: group 1 (KH) including 2839 GÅS baseline participants aged 60-93 years with a valid KH measurement and group 2 (demispan) including 2871 GÅS follow-up examination participants (1573 baseline; 1298 new), aged 60-99 years, with a valid demispan measurement. Participation rate was 80%. Height, weight, KH and demispan were measured. KH and demispan equations were formulated using linear regression analysis among participants aged 60-64 years as reference. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated in kg/m(2).
Undernutrition prevalences in men and women were 3.9 and 8.6% by KH, compared with 2.4 and 5.4% by standard BMI, and more pronounced for all women aged 85+ years (21% vs 11.3%). The corresponding value in women aged 85+ years by demispan was 16.5% vs 10% by standard BMI. Obesity prevalences in men and women were 17.5 and 14.6% by KH, compared with 19.0 and 20.03% by standard BMI. Values among women aged 85+ years were 3.7% vs 10.4% by KH and 6.5% vs 12.7% by demispan compared with the standard.
There is an age-related misclassification of undernutrition and obesity attributed to inaccurate height estimation among the elderly. This could affect the management of patients at true risk. We therefore propose using KH- and demispan-based formulae to address this issue.
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OBJECTIVE: Growth surveillance of children in school health services is a routine in Sweden. We describe the effect at follow-up of an overt identification of obesity in school children. METHODS: Follow-up data were collected in two populations of ten-year-old children with obesity. Children in the study group belonged to a cohort born in 1990. Here the presence of obesity had been identified at the routine growth screening, and intervention activities against obesity had been actively offered. Controls belonged to a cohort born in 1989. RESULTS: Of the 176 children with obesity, 91 were in the study group (41 girls) and 85 (44 girls) in the control group. No differences were found between the groups in age, gender or body mass index at baseline. At follow-up, after one to two years, children in the study group had a modest but significantly more pronounced decrease in the relative body mass index, compared with controls. The mean difference between the populations in body mass index standard deviation score (z-score) after adjustment for baseline body mass index and follow-up time was -0.14 (95% confidence interval: -0.25 to -0.02; P=0.027). Socioeconomic status, gender, follow-up time and group were independent predictors for change in body mass index z-score. CONCLUSIONS: To identify children with obesity in a routine school health survey may be a crucial initial step in the management of childhood obesity.
To evaluate the impact of obesity on mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction.
This study comprises 6676 consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction screened for entry into the Danish Trandolapril Cardiac Evaluation (TRACE) study. At baseline, body mass index (BMI) and waist to hip ratio (WHR) were measured. Survival status was determined after 8-10 years.
BMI was used to divide patients into 4 groups: underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese. The normal weight group was used as reference for the other groups. WHR was divided in quartiles and the lowest quartile was used as reference for the three other quartiles. The prevalence of overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m(2)) and obesity (BMI>30 kg/m(2)) were 48% and 13% in males and 31% and 13% in females. Obese patients were younger, less often smokers and more frequently suffered from diabetes and hypertension. In both men and women, there was no association between obesity assessed as BMI and mortality [men: adjusted RR=0.99 (0.85-1.14, p=0.3); women: adjusted RR=0.90 (0.74-1.10, p=0.2)]. Men with WHR in the upper quartile had an increased mortality [adjusted RR=1.21 (1.07-1.37, p
To investigate the effect of adulthood obesity on work ability in early midlife during a 15-year follow-up.
The study population included men and women (n?=?5470), born in northern Finland in 1966. Participants evaluated their current perceived work ability compared with their lifetime best at the age of 46. Participants' weight and height were measured at 31 years and self-reported at 46 years, and body mass indexes were calculated.
Obesity at both ages, and developing obesity between the ages of 31 and 46 increased the relative risk of poor work ability at 46 years among sexes, and among those in both low and high physically strenuous work.
Long-term obesity and developing obesity in mid-adulthood increase the risk of poor work ability. Thus, the promotion of healthy behaviors by policies, healthcare services, and at workplaces is important.