International research has demonstrated that rural residency is a risk factor for childhood adiposity. The main aim of this study was to investigate the urban-rural gradient in overweight and obesity and whether the association differed by maternal education.
Height, weight and waist circumference (WC) were measured in a nationally representative sample of 3166 Norwegian eight-year-olds in 2010. Anthropometric measures were stratified by area of residence (urbanity) and maternal education. Risk estimates for overweight (including obesity) and waist-to-height ratio =0.5 were calculated by log-binomial regression.
Mean BMI and WC and risk estimates of overweight (including obesity) and waist-to-height ratio =0.5 were associated with both urbanity and maternal education. These associations were robust after mutual adjustment for each other. Furthermore, there was an indication of interaction between urbanity and maternal education, as trends of mean BMI and WC increased from urban to rural residence among children of low-educated mothers (p?=?0.01 for both BMI and WC), whereas corresponding trends for children from higher educational background were non-significant (p?>?0.30). However, formal tests of the interaction term urbanity by maternal education were non-significant (p-value for interaction was 0.29 for BMI and 0.31 for WC).
In this nationally representative study, children living rurally and children of low-educated mothers had higher mean BMI and waist circumference than children living in more urban areas and children of higher educated mothers.
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Adult obesity and inflammation have been associated with risk of colorectal cancer (CRC); however, less is known about how adolescent body mass index (BMI) and inflammation, as measured by erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), relate to CRC risk. We sought to evaluate these associations in a cohort of 239 658 Swedish men who underwent compulsory military enlistment examinations in late adolescence (ages 16-20 years).
At the time of the conscription assessment (1969-1976), height and weight were measured and ESR was assayed. By linkage to the national cancer registry, these conscripts were followed for CRC through 1 January 2010. Over an average of 35 years of follow-up, 885 cases of CRC occurred, including 501 colon cancers and 384 rectal cancers. Cox regression was used to estimate adjusted HRs and corresponding 95% CIs.
Skinfold thickness, height, and weight measurements were recorded from 1964 through 1970 for more than 1,000 adult Eskimos who resided in the Central and Eastern Canadian Arctic. Among the men and women of all age groups, 70 to 83% had a low ponderal index (PI less than 12.5). Nutrition Canada reported similar rates in 200 adult Eskimos and therefore considered Eskimos, especially Eskimo men, as more obese than other Canadians. Thin skinfolds were found in most Eskimo men, including those with a low PI. The usefulness of the PI or other height/weight indices for appraisal of body fatness and prevalence of obesity in different population groups is questioned. Marked sex differences were found in the ratio of the skinfold thickness over the triceps to the mean thickness of two sites on the trunk (subscapular and suprailiac). Thus, use of the arm plus trunk sites provides important information about subcutaneous fat distribution, and comparisons of prevalence of obesity in different sex and age groups based only on arm skinfold measurements may be inappropriate.
From: Fortuine, Robert et al. 1993. The Health of the Inuit of North America: A Bibliography from the Earliest Times through 1990. University of Alaska Anchorage. Citation number 1277.
Obesity is a serious health problem, especially in patients with long-term mental disorders. We explored the socio-demographic, psychiatric, and clinical factors that increase the risk of changing from under- or normal weight in adolescence to overweight/obese in adulthood. We found a 3.6-fold risk of weight gain in females with psychotic disorder. Other significant correlates of weight gain in males were physical inactivity, unhealthy diet, high alcohol consumption, and being single; and in females, chronic diseases, physical inactivity, high alcohol consumption, and having at least three children. These findings emphasize the importance of regular weight monitoring in clinical practice, especially in females with psychotic disorders.
To compare children's actual weight status with their parents' perceptions of their weight status.
Cross-sectional study, including a self-administered questionnaire.
Seven elementary schools in Middlesex-London, Ont.
A convenience sample of pupils in grades 4 to 6 and their parents. Of the 770 child-parent pairs targeted, 355 pairs participated in the study.
Children's weight, height, and body mass index (BMI). Parents' perceptions of their children's weight status, family demographics, and parents' self-reported body weight and height. The United States Centers for Disease Control's BMI-for-age references were used to define children's weight status (underweight, overweight, or obese).
Response rate was 46%. Children's actual weight status (ie, 29.9% overweight or obese and 1.4% underweight) was different from their parents' perceptions of their weight status (ie, 18.3% overweight or obese and 17.2% slightly underweight or underweight). Factors such as children's sex and ethnicity and mothers' weight influenced parents' ability to recognize their children's weight status. Parents' misperceptions of their children's weight status seemed to be unrelated to their levels of education, their family income, or their children's ages.
A large proportion of parents did not recognize that their children were overweight or obese. Effective public health strategies to increase parents' awareness of their children's weight status could be the first key steps in an effort to prevent childhood obesity.
Previous literature on the association between obesity and atopy has been inconsistent. The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between obesity and atopic sensitization in adults.
The study included a total of 1,997 residents aged 18-79 years and was conducted in the town of Humboldt, Sask., Canada in 2003. Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were objectively measured. Allergy skin tests were conducted to determine atopic sensitization.
Overall, the prevalence of one or more positive skin tests for atopy was 33.3% among those with a BMI of at least 30.0, 28.2% among those with a BMI of 25.0-29.9 and 27.3% among those with a BMI of less than 25 (p = 0.003). The odds ratio for atopy among those with a BMI of at least 30.0 versus those with a BMI of less than 25.0 was 1.51 (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.17, 1.95) after adjustment for sex, age, and other covariates. Stratified by sex, the adjusted odds ratios for obesity versus normal weight were 1.27 (95% CI: 0.73, 1.93) for men and 1.63 (95% CI: 1.18, 2.26) for women. WC was also significantly associated with the prevalence of atopy in both sexes after controlling for covariates.
The data demonstrated a significant association between obesity, defined either by BMI or by WC, and atopy.
Comment In: Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2010;153(4):321-220558997
In a cross-sectional study design we test the hypothesis of whether obesity in adolescence is associated with periodontal risk indicators or disease.
Obese adolescents (n=52) and normal weight subjects (n=52) with a mean age of 14.5 years were clinically examined with respect to dental plaque, gingival inflammation, periodontal pockets and incipient alveolar bone loss. The subjects answered a questionnaire concerning medical conditions, oral hygiene habits, smoking habits and sociodemographic background. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated and adjusted for age and gender (BMI-SDS). Samples of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) were analyzed for the levels of adiponectin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), interleukin-1ß (IL-ß), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor a (TNF-a).
Obese subjects exhibited more gingival inflammation (P4 mm) (P
A prospective cohort study in adolescents aged 7 to 19 years.
To evaluate whether persistent overweight increases the risk of low back pain (LBP) among adolescents.
Overweight and LBP are common health problems in adolescents. Their relationship is still controversial among adolescents, as well as among adults.
The study population, the Oulu Back Study, was drawn from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. The final study sample included 1660 adolescents (56% females). The subcohort of 786 subjects (57% females) was used in the analysis of waist circumference. The association between the area under the curve of body mass index from 7 to 16 years, and from 16 to 18 years, and area under the curve of waist circumference from 16 to 19 years, and LBP during the past 6 months was evaluated separately for incident (reporting LBP at 18 or 19 yr but not at 16 yr) and persistent LBP (reporting LBP at 16 and 18 yr or 19 yr). Relative risks (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were adjusted for smoking, leisure time physical activity, and family socioeconomic status at 16 years and stratified by sex.
Body mass index from 16 to 18 years among girls and body mass index from 7 to 16 years among boys predicted incident LBP at 18 years (girls: RR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.01-1.18; boys: RR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.00-1.32). Among boys, waist circumference from 16 to 19 years was also associated with incident LBP (RR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.02-1.32). Overweight was not associated with persistent LBP.
In this population-based cohort study, persistent overweight slightly increased the risk of incident LBP, but the time period during which overweight was related to incident LBP differed between sexes.
Metabolic disorders are relatively uncommon in young women, but may increase with obesity. The associations between body mass index (BMI) and risks of diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia in apparently healthy, young women have been insufficiently investigated, and are the aims of this study.
Women giving birth during the years 2004-2009, with no history of cardiovascular disease, renal insufficiency, pregnancy-associated metabolic disorders, diabetes, hypertension, or dyslipidemia were identified in nationwide registers. Women were categorized as underweight (BMI
We investigated the association between estimated aerobic fitness and cardiovascular risk factors, and how the association is affected by abdominal obesity.
Cross-sectional population study.
Participants comprised 3820 adults aged 25 to 64 years from the FINRISK 2002 Study in Finland. Aerobic fitness was estimated using a non-exercise test. Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), blood pressure, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides, HDL-C to total cholesterol ratio, and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) levels were measured by standardized methods.
After controlling for age, smoking and alcohol consumption, aerobic fitness was inversely associated with systolic (P=0.027) and diastolic (P