Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are the main reason for morbidity during military training. MSDs commonly result in functional impairment leading to premature discharge from military service and disabilities requiring long-term rehabilitation. The purpose of the study was to examine associations between various risk factors and MSDs with special attention to the physical fitness of the conscripts.
Two successive cohorts of 18 to 28-year-old male conscripts (N = 944, median age 19) were followed for six months. MSDs, including overuse and acute injuries, treated at the garrison clinic were identified and analysed. Associations between MSDs and risk factors were examined by multivariate Cox's proportional hazard models.
During the six-month follow-up of two successive cohorts there were 1629 MSDs and 2879 health clinic visits due to MSDs in 944 persons. The event-based incidence rate for MSD was 10.5 (95% confidence interval (CI): 10.0-11.1) per 1000 person-days. Most MSDs were in the lower extremities (65%) followed by the back (18%). The strongest baseline factors associated with MSDs were poor result in the combined outcome of a 12-minute running test and back lift test (hazard ratio (HR) 2.9; 95% CI: 1.9-4.6), high waist circumference (HR 1.7; 95% CI: 1.3-2.2), high body mass index (HR 1.8; 95% CI: 1.3-2.4), poor result in a 12-minute running test (HR 1.6; 95% CI: 1.2-2.2), earlier musculoskeletal symptoms (HR 1.7; 95% CI: 1.3-2.1) and poor school success (educational level and grades combined; HR 2.0; 95% CI: 1.3-3.0). In addition, risk factors of long-term MSDs (>or=10 service days lost due to one or several MSDs) were analysed: poor result in a 12-minute running test, earlier musculoskeletal symptoms, high waist circumference, high body mass index, not belonging to a sports club and poor result in the combined outcome of the 12-minute running test and standing long jump test were strongly associated with long-term MSDs.
The majority of the observed risk factors are modifiable and favourable for future interventions. An appropriate intervention based on the present study would improve both aerobic and muscular fitness prior to conscript training. Attention to appropriate waist circumference and body mass index would strengthen the intervention. Effective results from well-planned randomised controlled studies are needed before initiating large-scale prevention programmes in a military environment.
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OBJECTIVE: Obesity and underweight in young adulthood are associated with greater risk of future disability pension. Neither underlying causes of disability pension nor whether overweight confers excess risk is established in this age group. The aim of this study was to investigate risk of future disability pension according to body mass index (BMI) in young adulthood. DESIGN: BMI was measured at military conscription (1969-1994; n=1 191 027; mean age 18.3+/-0.5 years). Date and cause of disability pension, death and emigration dates were collected from national registers (1971-2006). Muscular strength, age, municipality, socioeconomic position, testing center and year were adjusted for in Cox regressions. RESULTS: During 28.4 million person-years, 60 024 subjects were granted disability pension. The hazard ratios (HRs) for underweight (1.14, CI 95% 1.11-1.17), overweight (1.36, 1.32-1.40), moderate (BMI 30-34.9; 1.87, 1.76 to 1.99) and morbid obesity (BMI>or=35; 3.04, 2.72-3.40) were elevated compared to normal weight. Not adjusting for muscular strength led to overestimation of the risk in underweight (1.27, 1.24-1.31), but underestimation in overweight (1.29, 1.25-1.33), moderately (1.72, 1.62-1.82) and morbidly obese subjects (2.77, 2.48-3.09). For circulatory and musculoskeletal causes, respectively, HRs were elevated only for overweight (2.06; 1.82-2.34; 1.47; 1.39-1.55) and obesity (3.51; 2.79-4.40; 2.15; 1.94-2.38). The same applied for tumors and nervous system, but not psychiatric causes, for which underweight (1.20; 1.16-1.24) displayed similar HR as overweight (1.21; 1.16-1.27), whereas the risk in obese subjects was higher (1.60; 1.46-1.75). CONCLUSION: The risks in overweight and obese, but not underweight, subjects were significantly elevated for each cause investigated. Although causality cannot be inferred, productivity losses associated with adverse BMI in young adulthood appear to be large.
Obesity is a modifiable risk factor for acute myocardial infarction (MI), but lean body mass (LBM) may also be an important factor. Low LBM may increase the risk of MI and LBM may modify the effect of obesity on MI. Thus, the inability of the classical anthropometric measures to evaluate LBM may lead to misclassification of MI risk in both lean and obese persons. We investigated the associations between incident MI and bioelectrical impedance analyses (BIA) derived measures of body composition in combination with body mass index (BMI) and anthropometric measures of body fat distribution.
From 1993 to 1997, 27?148 men and 29?863 women, aged 50 to 64 year, were recruited into the Danish prospective study Diet, Cancer and Health. During 11.9 years of follow-up we identified 2028 cases of incident MI (1487 men and 541 women). BMI, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference and BIA of body composition including body fat mass (BFM), body fat percentage and LBM were measured at baseline. We used Cox proportional hazard models with age as time axis and performed extensive control for confounding. Weight, BMI, classical estimates of abdominal obesity and BIA estimates of obesity showed significant positive associations with incident MI. However, BFM adjusted for WC showed no association. Low LBM was associated with a higher risk of incident MI in both genders, and high LBM was associated with a higher risk in men.
Obesity was positively associated with MI. Estimates of obesity achieved by BIA seemed not to add additional information to classical anthropometric measures regarding MI risk. Both high and low LBM may be positively associated with MI.
We aimed to determine whether obese subjects experience more gastro-oesophageal reflux (GORS) symptoms than normal subjects, and further to determine if this association was explained by oesophagitis or medications that lower oesophageal sphincter pressure.
In a representative Swedish population, a random sample (n = 1001, mean age 53.5 years, 51% women) had upper endoscopy. GORS was defined as any bothersome heartburn or acid regurgitation.
The prevalence of obesity (body mass index > or =30) was 16%; oesophagitis was significantly more prevalent in obesity (26.5%) than in normal subjects (9.3%). There were associations between obesity and GORS (odds ratio (OR) 2.05 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.39, 3.01)), epigastric pain (OR 1.63 (95% CI 1.05, 2.55)), irritable bowel symptoms (OR 1.58 (95% CI 1.05, 2.38)), any abdominal pain (OR 1.59 (95% CI 1.08, 2.35)), vomiting (OR 3.11 (95% CI 1.18, 8.20)), retching (OR 1.74 (95% CI 1.1.3, 2.67)), diarrhoea (OR 2.2 (95% CI 1.38, 3.46)), any stool urgency (OR 1.60 (95% CI 1.04, 2.47)), nocturnal urgency (OR 2.57 (95% CI 1.33, 4.98)), and incomplete rectal evacuation (OR 1.64 (95% CI 1.09, 2.47)), adjusting for age, sex, and education. When subjects with oesophagitis and peptic ulcer were excluded, only diarrhoea, incomplete evacuation, and vomiting were significantly associated with obesity. The association between GORS and obesity remained significant adjusting for medication use (OR 1.9 (95% CI 1.3, 3.0)).
GORS is associated with obesity; this appears to be explained by increased upper endoscopy findings in obesity.
Cites: Am J Gastroenterol. 2004 Sep;99(9):1801-615330922
To examine the independent relationship between obesity, as estimated by body mass index (BMI), and progression of chronic kidney disease. We hypothesized that BMI would be associated with decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), independent of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and other risk factors for progression of chronic kidney disease.
A retrospective cohort study was carried out.
The study was carried out at Nephrology ambulatory clinics of the London Health Sciences Centre, Canada.
The study included incident and prevalent patients with eGFR
Previous work indicates that overweight and obese individuals carry an increased risk of experiencing chronic low back pain (LBP). It is not known, however, how the association with body size depends on the choice of anthropometric measure used.
This work compares relationships with LBP for several measures of body size. Different results may indicate underlying mechanisms for the association between body size and risk of LBP.
In a cohort study, baseline information was collected in the community-based HUNT2 (1995-1997) and HUNT3 (2006-2008) surveys in Norway. Participants were 10,059 women and 8725 men aged 30-69 years without LBP, and 3883 women and 2662 men with LBP at baseline. Associations with LBP at end of follow-up were assessed by generalized linear modeling, with adjustment for potential confounders.
Relationships between waist-hip-ratio and occurrence of LBP at end of follow-up were weak and non-significant after adjustment for age, education, work status, physical activity, smoking, lipid levels and blood pressure. Positive associations with LBP at end of follow-up were all significant for body weight, BMI, waist circumference and hip circumference after similar adjustment, both in women without and with LBP at baseline, and in men without LBP at baseline. After additional mutual adjustment for anthropometric measures, the magnitude of the association with body weight increased in women without LBP at baseline (RR: 1.130 per standard deviation, 95% CI: 0.995-1.284) and in men (RR: 1.124, 95% CI 0.976-1.294), with other measures showing weak associations only.
Central adiposity is unlikely to play a major role in the etiology of LBP. Total fat mass may be one common factor underlying the associations observed. The association with body weight remaining after mutual adjustment may reflect mechanical or structural components behind the relationship between overweight or obesity and LBP.
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The objectives of our study were to compare patient characteristics and severity of disease in obese and normal-weight-confirmed people with asthma and to explore reasons for misdiagnosis of asthma, including potential interactions with obesity.
We randomly selected patients with physician-diagnosed asthma from eight Canadian cities. Asthma diagnosis was confirmed via a sequential lung function testing algorithm. Logistic analysis was conducted to compare obese and normal-weight-confirmed people with asthma and to assess characteristics associated with misdiagnosis of asthma. Interaction with obesity was investigated.
Complete assessments were obtained on 496 subjects who reported physician-diagnosed asthma (242 obese and 254 normal-weight subjects); 346 had asthma confirmed with sequential lung testing, and in 150 subjects a diagnosis of asthma was ruled out. Obese subjects with asthma were significantly more likely to be men, have a history of hypertension and gastroesophageal reflux disease, and have a lower FEV(1) compared with normal-weight subjects with asthma. Older subjects, men, and subjects with higher FEV(1) were more likely to have received misdiagnoses of asthma. Obesity was not an independent predictor of misdiagnosis, however there was an interaction between obesity and urgent visits for respiratory symptoms. The odds ratio for receiving a misdiagnosis of asthma for obese individuals as compared with normal-weight individuals was 4.08 (95% CI, 1.23-13.5) for those with urgent visits in the past 12 months.
Obese people with asthma have lower lung function and more comorbidities compared with normal-weight people with asthma. Obese individuals who make urgent visits for respiratory symptoms are more likely to receive a misdiagnosis of asthma.
Childhood overweight and obesity may result in premature onset of cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension. Rural populations in North America may be at increased risk for overweight. We evaluated whether overweight and obesity were associated with prehypertension and hypertension in a well-characterized population of children in rural Canada.
The study population for this cross-sectional study was composed of children (aged 4-17 years) who were participants of the Walkerton Health Study (Canada) in 2004. Prehypertension and hypertension were defined on the basis of percentiles from the average of 3 blood pressure measures taken on a single occasion. Percentiles for BMI and blood pressure were calculated by using the 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts. Multinomial logistic regression was used to evaluate the odds for prehypertension and hypertension resulting from overweight and obesity.
Of 675 children (98.7% white), 122 (18.1%) were overweight and 77 (11.4%) were obese. Prehypertension and hypertension were detected in 51 (7.6%) and 50 (7.4%), respectively. After adjustment for family history of hypertension and kidney disease, obesity was associated with both prehypertension and hypertension. Overweight was associated with hypertension but not prehypertension. These associations were observed across the genders and children aged or=13 years, except that overweight was not associated with hypertension among girls.
In this population of children who lived in a rural community in Canada, overweight and obesity were strongly associated with elevated blood pressure. Whether blood pressure normalizes with improvements in diet, physical activity, and environment is an area for additional study.
The prevalences of asthma and obesity have increased substantially in recent decades in many countries, leading to speculation that obese persons might be at increased risk of asthma development. In adults cross-sectional, case-control, prospective, and weight-loss studies are in the aggregate consistent with a role for obesity in the pathogenesis of asthma. In children 3 of 4 prospective studies also show a significant association between excess weight and asthma incidence. Because of the methodologic shortcomings of many studies, these findings are inconclusive, however. Population surveys do suggest that persons with asthma are disproportionately obese compared with persons who have never had asthma. Weight-loss studies on the basis of behavioral change and bariatric studies have shown substantial improvements in the clinical status of many obese patients with asthma who lost weight. Clarifying the nature of the relationship between obesity and asthma incidence and the role of weight management among patients with asthma are both critical areas with important ramifications for the prevention and treatment of asthma.