This study examines the adequacy of the dietary intake based on age, sex, and level of nutritional risk among 98 frail elderly persons receiving home care through Community Care Access Centres. The dietary intakes were measured using 24-hour recalls and were compared with the dietary reference intake. The participants' intakes of both macronutrients and micronutrients were found to be inadequate. On average, elderly persons were consuming more than the recommended amount of protein, but the average intakes of many vitamins and minerals were less than optimal based on the average intakes. Paradoxically, more than half of elderly participants were overweight or obese. The results highlight the need for appropriate nutrition, education, and support for elderly persons receiving home care.
The authors demonstrated relationship between alimentation dependent diseases among adult population of the Republic and nutritional traits of the population, defined major directions of program to optimize nutrition of the population.
Presented are the results of nutrition status analysis of the orbital "MIR" station crews. Investigations carried out both on the basis of subjective information concerning the state of crews members appetite, quantity of consumed food etc. as well as on the subjectives results of biochemical blood analysis reflecting the status of metabolic processes in human in zero-gravity conditions. The obtained data prove that jointly developed Russian-American food rations sustained the satisfactory level of working ability and health of cosmonauts and astronauts.
The vast majority of elderly people in Sweden live in private homes in their communities for as long as possible. Poor health and a high risk of falls are very common among this group. This cross-sectional study investigates the association between falls and general health, appetite, dental health, and the use of multiple medications among home-dwelling men and women aged = 75 years. Data were collected between October 2008 and March 2009 using a postal questionnaire. A total of 1243 people participated in the questionnaire survey (74% response rate), of which 1193 were included in the analysis. The majority of participants were women (n = 738, 62%). Falls in the previous 12-month period were reported by 434 (36%) participants. Most fallers (n = 276, 64%) were women. The majority of the fallers lived in a flat (n = 250, 58%). Poor health (aOR: 1.61; CI: 1.34-1.95), poor dental health (aOR: 1.22; CI: 1.07-1.39) and the use of four or more types of medication daily (aOR: 1.13; CI: 1.03-1.25) were significantly associated with falls in all participants. Poor dental health was found irrespectively of living in a flat (aOR: 1.23; CI: 1.04-1.46) or living in a house (aOR: 1.28; CI: 1.02-1.61), and both were significantly associated with falls. The use of more than four different types of medication daily (aOR: 1.25; CI: 1.11-1.41) was associated with falls for those living in a flat. The results highlight that falls are associated with poor general health, poor dental health and the use of four or more types of medication daily. Health professionals should provide health promotion education and investigate dental health and risk factors for oral disease. Likewise, medical and clinical practices of physicians and community care nurses should include assessing the risk of falling, and treatment that predisposes falls.
The associations of body mass index (BMI) and abdominal obesity with mortality among very old people are poorly known. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of BMI, waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio with mortality in nonagenarians.
This study is part of a prospective population-based study, Vitality 90+, including both community-dwelling and institutionalized persons from Tampere, Finland. Altogether 192 women and 65 men aged 90 years were subjected to anthropometric measurements, a baseline interview, and a 4-year mortality follow-up. Cox proportional hazards models were used in the statistical analyses.
In men, normal weight indicated a three times higher mortality risk (hazard ratio [HR] 3.09, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.35-7.06) compared with overweight, and WC was inversely associated with mortality (HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.93-1.00) after adjustment for covariates. In women, the univariate waist-to-hip ratio (HR 1.43, 95% CI 1.06-1.92) and BMI-adjusted waist-to-hip ratio (HR 1.45, 95% CI 1.07-1.97) were positively associated with mortality. Also, overweight women whose WC was
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to examine the trends which have occurred during the past generation in body mass index (BMI) and in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children in public schools in Nuuk, Greenland. STUDY DESIGN: The study is a retrospective cohort study of BMI among inschooling children (age 6 or 7 years old). A database was created on the basis of files from school-nurses containing information on height and weight among children having attended school in Nuuk since 1970. The database contained 10,121 measurements in total, whereas 2,801 were on inschooling children. Measurements from these children form the basis of this study. Mean and quartiles of BMI among the inschooling children in 5-year intervals were used to determine the development in BMI since 1980. On the basis of international cut-points for use among children and adolescents, the proportion of overweight and obese children and the trends since 1980 were determined. RESULTS: The mean BMI has risen by a total of a bit more than 6% since 1980, corresponding to a rise of 1.2-3.8% for every 5-year period. Increases are also observed when assessing the proportion of overweight and obese, which were 6.6% and 0.9%, respectively, among the inschooling children during the period 1980-1984. These proportions increased to 16.5% and 5.2%, respectively, in 2000-2004. CONCLUSION: This study has provided evidence that during the past two decades, children in Nuuk have undergone a development towards a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity.
Comment In: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2005 Apr;64(2):107-915945280
Analyses of cross-sectional population survey data in Canada and the United States have indicated that household food insecurity is associated with poorer self-rated health and multiple chronic conditions. The causal inference has been that household food insecurity contributes to poorer health, but there has been little consideration of how adults' health status may relate to households' vulnerability to food insecurity. Our objectives were to examine how the presence of an adult with one or more chronic physical or mental health conditions affects the odds of a household being food insecure and how the chronic ill-health of an adult within a food-insecure household affects the severity of that household's food insecurity. Using household- and respondent-level data available for 77,053 adults aged 18-64 y from the 2007-2008 Canadian Community Health Survey, we applied logistic regression analyses, controlling for household sociodemographic characteristics, to examine the association between health and household food insecurity. Most chronic conditions increased the odds of household food insecurity independent of household sociodemographic characteristics. Compared with adults with no chronic condition, the odds of household food insecurity were 1.43 (95% CI: 1.28, 1.59), 1.86 (95% CI: 1.62, 2.14), and 3.44 (95% CI: 3.02, 3.93) for adults with 1, 2, and 3 or more chronic conditions, respectively. Among food-insecure households, adults with multiple chronic conditions had higher odds of severe household food insecurity than adults with no chronic condition. The chronic ill-health of adults may render their households more vulnerable to food insecurity. This has important practice implications for health professionals who can identify and assist those at risk, but it also suggests that appropriate chronic disease management may reduce the prevalence and severity of food insecurity.
The high environmental levels of foreign chemical substances and the inadequate intake of both essential nutrients, such as proteins, fats, carbohydrates, and micronutrients, such as minerals, vitamins, and trace elements, in half of the examined children and adolescents promoted a rise in the incidence of chronic noncommunicable diseases in 2005-2009 particularly in the districts of Dmitrovskv, Khovrino where the morbidity rates were 1.5-2 times higher than those in the whole area.
Health status, the way of life and nourishment of 84 vegans in Siberian village (Krasnoyarsk region) were studied and compared with those of 26 meat-eaters. The investigation included work with a questionnaire, clinico-diagnostic and laboratory research. It was shown that a vegetarian diet improves the serum lipid spectrum (cholesterol, LPLD, cholesterol of LPNP, atherogenic coefficient), normalizes weight and cardiovascular system. The vegans had normal levels of vitamin B12 and serum Fe but the calcium level in this group was lowered as compared with the control group. The pathology of internals (nephroptosis, lithic diathesis, tendency to lithogenesis) was observed. Apparently, the high serum Zn levels found in both groups aren't directly caused by the diet but by climate and geographic factors.