Knowledge of dietary habits makes the basis for public nutrition policy. The aim of this study was to assess dietary intake of Icelandic six-year-olds.
Subjects were randomly selected six-year-old children (n=162). Dietary intake was assessed by three-day-weighed food records. Food and nutrient intake was compared with the Icelandic food based dietary guidelines (FBDG) and recommended intake of vitamins and minerals.
Fruit and vegetable intake was on average 275Â±164 g/d, and less than 20% of the subjects consumed =400 g/day. Fish and cod liver oil intake was in line with the FBDG among approximately 25% of subjects. Most subjects (87%) consumed at least two portions of dairy products daily. Food with relatively low nutrient density (cakes, cookies, sugar sweetened drinks, sweets and ice-cream) provided up to 25% of total energy intake. The contribution of saturated fatty acids to total energy intake was 14.1%. Less than 20% of the children consumed dietary fibers in line with recommendations, and for saturated fat and salt only 5% consumed less than the recommended upper limits. Average intake of most vitamins and minerals, apart from vitamin-D, was higher than the recommended intake.
Although the vitamin and mineral density of the diet seems adequate, with the exception of vitamin-D, the contribution of low energy density food to total energy intake is high. Intake of vegetables, fruits, fish and cod liver oil is not in line with public recommendations. Strategies aiming at improving diet of young children are needed.
The aim was to estimate energy and protein intake of patients at the Department of Cardiothoracic surgery, LandspÃtali the National University Hospital of Iceland. Another aim was also to assess their nutritional status.
The energy and protein content of meals served by the hospital's kitchen is known. Starting at least 48 hours after surgery, all left over food and drinks were weighed and recorded for three consecutive days. Energy and protein requirements were estimated according to clinical guidelines for hospital nutrition at LandspÃtali (25-30 kcal/kg/day and 1.2-1.5 g/kg/day, respectively). Nutritional status was estimated using a validated seven question screening sheet.
Results are presented for 61 patients. The average energy intake was 19Â±5.8 kcal/kg/day. Protein intake was on average 0.9Â±0.3 g/kg/day. Most patients (>80%) had an energy and protein intake below the lower limit of estimated energy and protein needs, even on the fifth day after sugery. According to the nutritional assessment 14 patients (23%) were defined as either malnourished or at risk for malnutrition. This group was closer than the well-nourished group to meeting their estimated energy- and protein needs. The use of nutrition drinks was more common among malnourished patients and those at risk of malnutrition than the well-nourished patients.
The results suggest that the energy and protein intake of patients is below estimated requirements, even on the fifth day after surgery. Attention must be paid to malnutrition and nutrition in general in the hospital wards.