Injection drug use and malnutrition are widespread among polydrug addicts in Oslo, Norway, but little is known about the frequency of abscess infections and possible relations to malnutrition.
To assess the prevalence of abscess infections, and differences in nutritional status between drug addicts with or without abscess infections.
A cross-sectional study of 195 polydrug addicts encompassing interview of demographics, dietary recall, anthropometric measurements and biochemical analyses. All respondents were under the influence of illicit drugs and were not participating in any drug treatment or rehabilitation program at the time of investigation.
Abscess infections were reported by 25% of the respondents, 19% of the men and 33% of the women (p = 0.025). Underweight (BMI 15 ?mol/L) was 73% in the abscess-infected group and 41% in the non-abscess-infected group (p = 0.001). The concentrations of S-25-hydroxy-vitamin D3 was very low.
The prevalence of abscess infections was 25% among the examined polydrug addicts. Dietary, anthropometric and biochemical assessment indicated a relation between abscess infections and malnutrition.
To evaluate the nutritional and clinical consequences of changing from a centralized food delivery system to decentralized bulk food portioning; a system in which meal portioning occurs on residents' floors of a nursing home.
A pilot study with a pre-post design
The study took place on one floor of a home for elderly persons with dementia. Of the 34 residents, 22 (1 man) participated in this study. Average age was 82 years (range = 55 to 94 years). Nutritional status was verified before introduction of the bulk food portioning system by 3 nonconsecutive days of observed food intakes, anthropometric measurements (height, weight, triceps skinfold thickness, mid-upper-arm circumference), and biochemical parameters (albumin, lymphocytes, glucose, sodium, potassium, transferrin, vitamin B-12, folate, hemoglobin). Trained dietitians collected the dietary and anthropometric data and validated the food intake estimates and anthropometric measurements. Data were also collected 10 weeks after implementation of the new food distribution system.
Paired t tests adjusted by a Bonferroni correction assessed differences between values measured before and after introduction of the new food distribution system.
Average food consumption increased substantially and significantly after introduction of the bulk food portioning system. Mean energy intakes rose from 1,555 to 1,924 kcal/day and most other nutrients also increased, many significantly, but there were no changes in anthropometric values or biochemical parameters, except for albumin level which decreased to the lower normal limit.
Portioning of food in the residents' dining room simulates a homelike atmosphere thereby encouraging increased food consumption. With well-trained and enthusiastic staff, this system could contribute to improved nutritional status in the very elderly, even those who have dementia. Dietitians have a key role to play in overseeing residents' nutritional needs and in training, supervising, and motivating foodservice personnel.
The rate of obesity and associated risk factors in Canadian youth is increasing at an alarming rate. Nutrition plays an important role in weight maintenance. This study reports the effectiveness of Action Schools! BC---Healthy Eating, a school-based fruit and vegetable (FV) intervention, in effecting change in: 1) students' intake of FV, 2) students' knowledge, attitudes and perceptions regarding FV, and 3) students' willingness to try new FV.
Five schools that represented geographic, socio-economic and size variation were recruited as Action Schools! BC--Healthy Eating intervention schools. A second set of five schools were selected as matched healthy eating usual practice schools. Student outcomes were measured at baseline and at 12-week follow-up using self-report questionnaires. Classroom logs and progress reports were used to assess implementation dose and fidelity. The intervention included school-wide activities based on individualized Action Plans addressing goals across six Action Zones.
Significant differences were found between conditions over time while controlling for baseline levels. Fruit servings, FV servings, FV variety, and percent of FV tried from a fixed list increased in intervention schools. Teachers implemented a mean of 64% of requested classroom dose, and school Action Teams implemented activities across 80% of the whole-school model.
A whole-school framework can impact FV intake, but results were modest due to implementation issues. Further implementation and evaluation are necessary to fully understand the effectiveness of this initiative.
Actual food of schoolchildren living on radiologically contaminated territories was evaluated within the scope of a special program. Their diets (school breakfasts and dinners) were found deficient in calories, vitamins, vegetable oil, animal protein, minerals, especially calcium, phosphorus, iodine. The proportion of protein, fat and carbohydrates proved improper. The authors proposed scientifically grounded diets providing alimentary prevention of possible hazards of radionuclide effects.
During seven epidemics of rotavirus from 1978 to 1987, 575 children younger than 3 years were admitted to hospital with acute gastroenteritis. The management before and during hospitalization, the status on admission and the outcome are reviewed. The mean age of the patients rose significantly during the study period, with the proportion younger than 12 months decreasing from 50 to 26%. Mild to moderate iso-osmolal dehydration was found in most cases, both hypernatraemia and hyponatraemia were rare. The home management had usually consisted of fasting except for "clear fluids". Oral rehydration and rapid feeding in hospital according to modern principles accelerated weight gain, shortened the duration of diarrhoea and the hospital stay and reduced the requirement for intravenous fluid therapy. This experience, together with the current rarity of acute gastroenteritis in young infants and of delay in recovery, suggests that oral rehydration and realimentation should be more extensively used in general practice.
POSITION STATEMENT It is the position of Dietitians of Canada that household food insecurity is a serious public health issue with profound effects on physical and mental health and social well-being. All households in Canada must have sufficient income for secure access to nutritious food after paying for other basic necessities. Given the alarming prevalence, severity and impact of household food insecurity in Canada, Dietitians of Canada calls for a pan-Canadian, government-led strategy to specifically reduce food insecurity at the household level, including policies that address the unique challenges of household food insecurity among Indigenous Peoples. Regular monitoring of the prevalence and severity of household food insecurity across all of Canada is required. Research must continue to address gaps in knowledge about household vulnerability to food insecurity and to evaluate the impact of policies developed to eliminate household food insecurity in Canada. Dietitians of Canada recommends: Development and implementation of a pan-Canadian government-led strategy that includes coordinated policies and programs, to ensure all households have consistent and sufficient income to be able to pay for basic needs, including food. Implementation of a federally-supported strategy to comprehensively address the additional and unique challenges related to household food insecurity among Indigenous Peoples, including assurance of food sovereignty, with access to lands and resources, for acquiring traditional/country foods, as well as improved access to more affordable and healthy store-bought/market foods in First Nation reserves and northern and remote communities. Commitment to mandatory, annual monitoring and reporting of the prevalence of marginal, moderate and severe household food insecurity in each province and territory across Canada, including among vulnerable populations, as well as regular evaluation of the impact of poverty reduction and protocols for screening within the health care system. Support for continued research to address gaps in knowledge about populations experiencing greater prevalence and severity of household food insecurity and to inform the implementation and evaluation of strategies and policies that will eliminate household food insecurity in Canada.
Despite its health implications, the fibre intake of Irish children is unknown. The North/South Ireland Food Consumption Survey indicated that 77% of Irish adults do not consume adequate fibre and surveys of children and adolescents in Canada and Sweden have confirmed suboptimal fibre intake in these groups. This study undertook to assess fibre intake and the incidence of constipation in Irish children aged 5-8 years. Children admitted to hospital with an acute self-limiting medical illness were included in the study. Three day food diaries were recorded on discharge from hospital. The presence of constipation was ascertained Seventy six per cent of 135 children s diets did not contain adequate fibre. The incidence of constipation was 13.6% in those with inadequate fibre intake as opposed to 6% in those with adequate fibre intake. Poor dietary fibre needs to be addressed in the context of health promotion and disease prevention involving parents, health care professionals and government public policy.
To investigate the adequacy of food rations to supply energy needs in cold-temperature environments, caloric expenditure and intake and body composition changes were measured in a group of infantrymen during a 10-day field exercise in the Canadian Arctic. Energy expenditure was measured by the doubly labeled water method (n = 10), and caloric intake was measured by complete food intake records (n = 20). Body composition was determined by isotope dilution (n = 10) and bioelectrical impedence analysis (n = 20) on days 0 and 10. Baseline isotopic enrichment shifts due to geographical relocation were also monitored (n = 5). Mean body weight decreased 0.63 +/- 0.83 (SD) kg over the study period (P
Adequacy of intake for niacin, folate, and vitamin B12 from food was estimated in an adult population in Newfoundland and Labrador (NL). Also considered was whether study findings support current Canadian food fortification policies.
Four hundred randomly selected adult NL residents were surveyed by telephone. Secondary analysis was performed on two 24-hour food recalls for each participant. Mean daily intakes of niacin, folate, and vitamin B12 were estimated from foods only and compared by sex/age subgroup. Adequacy of intakes was estimated. Contributions of folate by ready-to-eat cereal and bread products were also estimated.
Intakes of all three nutrients were higher in men. In comparison with recommendations, daily niacin intakes were as follows: excessive for 21.9% of all participants (and for 56.8% of men aged 28 to 54), within the recommended range for 73.6%, and less than adequate for 4.5%. In comparison with recommendations, daily folate intakes were as follows: within the recommended range for 18.1% of participants and less than adequate for 81.9%. In comparison with recommendations, daily vitamin B12 intakes were less than adequate for 36.3% of participants.
More than 20% of those surveyed were consuming, from food alone, niacin at levels above the maximum recommended. Food fortification policies pertaining to niacin should be revisited. In addition, despite fortification, NL adults may be consuming inadequate amounts of folate from foods.
This study examines the adequacy of the dietary intake based on age, sex, and level of nutritional risk among 98 frail elderly persons receiving home care through Community Care Access Centres. The dietary intakes were measured using 24-hour recalls and were compared with the dietary reference intake. The participants' intakes of both macronutrients and micronutrients were found to be inadequate. On average, elderly persons were consuming more than the recommended amount of protein, but the average intakes of many vitamins and minerals were less than optimal based on the average intakes. Paradoxically, more than half of elderly participants were overweight or obese. The results highlight the need for appropriate nutrition, education, and support for elderly persons receiving home care.