Accelerated loss of traditional lifestyles may place Inuit at risk of iron depletion given that anemia has been observed among Arctic men. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of anemia, storage iron depletion, and iron overload and to identify correlates of iron status in Canadian Inuit men. In a cross-sectional survey of 994 men in the International Polar Year Inuit Health Survey, 2007-2008, hemoglobin, serum ferritin (SF), soluble transferrin receptor (on a subset), CRP, RBC fatty acid composition, and Helicobacter pylori serology were measured in venous blood drawn from fasting men. Anthropometric, dietary, sociodemographic, and health data were collected. Dietary and nondietary correlates of iron status were assessed with multiple linear and logistic models. For men with CRP =10 mg/L (n = 804), 6.5% had depleted, 19.8% had low, and 10.3% had elevated iron stores. Anemia was moderately prevalent (16.1%), but iron deficiency anemia was less common (2.4%). There was a low probability of dietary iron inadequacy (2.4% Tolerable Upper Intake Level). Food-insecure men and those without a household hunter had a higher risk of low or depleted iron stores. Adiposity, traditional food intake, long-chain RBC PUFA status, and inflammation were positively associated with SF and food insecurity, smoking, and H. pylori seropositivity were negatively associated with SF. Despite a moderate prevalence of anemia, iron stores are largely adequate in this population, although lower than expected based on iron intake. The regulation of iron metabolism in this population and the high prevalence of anemia in older men warrants further investigation.
To describe possible social, nutritional and biological factors influencing iron intake and iron status among healthy one-year-old children in southern Sweden.
Iron deficiency is one of the most important nutritional disorders and increases the risk of delayed mental and motor development. Children are at risk because of rapid growth, which entails relatively high requirements of iron.
A prospective study using survey methods.
Randomly selected one-year-old children (n = 90) and their parents participated. Parents answered a questionnaire enquiring about demographic data and the child's feeding and health during the first year. The child's total food intake and blood samples (haemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, S-ferritin and transferring receptor) were obtained. Results. Twenty-seven per cent of the children had an iron intake below the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations of 8 mg/day (NNR 2004). Follow-on formula and iron-fortified porridge contributed to 64% of the child's total iron intake. Partial breastfeeding and low maternal education correlated negatively with iron intake from complementary food. In total, 10·3% (n = 9) of the children were found to be iron-depleted (S-ferritin = 12 µg/l), and 2·3% (n = 2) had iron deficiency with or without anaemia (Hb = 100 g/l).
One-year-old children in Sweden may be at risk of developing iron deficiency, but information about iron-rich food can improve iron status.
Knowledge about factors influencing children's iron intake and iron status may improve the nutritional advice and education from the Child Health Services to prevent or detect iron deficiency.
There has been a thrilling development , as well as profound changes, in our understanding of the effect of fetal nutrition on the development and health of the child. The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) is an ongoing nationwide population-based pregnancy cohort study that between 1999 and 2008 recruited 90,723 women with 106,981 pregnancies and 108,487 children. The objective of MoBa is to test specific etiologic hypotheses by estimating the association between exposures and diseases with a special focus on disorders that may originate in early life. An important aspect in this regard is maternal diet and nutritional status during pregnancy. Nutritional factors have long been considered to be important determinants of maternal and fetal health, and dietary information is currently being collected in a number of pregnancy cohorts in Europe and the United States. Thus far, pregnancy complications studied in MoBa are preterm birth, preeclampsia, and fetal growth; and the aim of this article is to report results of recently published studies of dietary factors in relation to these outcomes. Numerous studies are planned using MoBa data, and the aim is to add to the knowledge of the interplay between dietary factors, nonnutrients, and toxic dietary substances and epigenetic modulation on fetal development and health later in life.
To examine the nutritional status and energy, protein, and micronutrient intake of aged residents living in service houses and to compare how they meet official recommendations.
Service house residents (n = 375) in the metropolitan region of Helsinki, Finland.
The nutritional status of residents was assessed with the Mini Nutritional Assessment. Residents' energy, protein, and nutrient intake were calculated from 1-day food diaries and compared with the nutrition recommendations.
The mean age of participants was 83 years; 82% were females. According to the Mini Nutritional Assessment, 65% were at risk for malnutrition and 21% were malnourished. Energy, protein, and nutrient intake varied greatly among residents. Inadequate energy, protein, and micronutrient intake was common among the oldest residents. Of the whole group, 46% received less than 1570 kcal/d of energy and 47% received less than 60 g/d of protein. Their intake of fiber, vitamin E, vitamin D, and folic acid was especially low. The percentages of residents receiving less than the recommended intake of these nutrients were 98%, 98%, 38%, and 86%, respectively.
Taking into account the large number of aged residents suffering from malnutrition or being at risk for malnutrition, low energy, protein, and micronutrient intake was very common. Assessment-based nutritional care should be a significant part in supporting frail older people in service houses.
This study investigated whether large fluctuations in food availability during grandparents' early development influenced grandchildren's cardiovascular mortality. We reported earlier that changes in availability of food - from good to poor or from poor to good - during intrauterine development was followed by a double risk of sudden death as an adult, and that mortality rate can be associated with ancestors' childhood availability of food. We have now studied transgenerational responses (TGR) to sharp differences of harvest between two consecutive years' for ancestors of 317 people in Överkalix, Sweden.
The confidence intervals were very wide but we found a striking TGR. There was no response in cardiovascular mortality in the grandchild from sharp changes of early exposure, experienced by three of the four grandparents (maternal grandparents and paternal grandfathers). If, however, the paternal grandmother up to puberty lived through a sharp change in food supply from one year to next, her sons' daughters had an excess risk for cardiovascular mortality (HR 2.69, 95% confidence interval 1.05-6.92). Selection or learning and imitation are unlikely explanations. X-linked epigenetic inheritance via spermatozoa seemed to be plausible, with the transmission, limited to being through the father, possibly explained by the sex differences in meiosis.
The shock of change in food availability seems to give specific transgenerational responses.
A growing morbidity among the population of the Maritime territory is preconditioned by a worsening social-and-economic situation, and by a sharply falling purchasing capacity of people, which had an absolutely negative effect on the structure of foodstuffs consumption. The qualitatively and quantitatively insufficient nutrition predetermines a deficit of macro- and micronutrient composition of daily ration and its value. Such defects of nutrition have a pronounced negative influence on the population's health and predetermine a high level of diseases of the digestive apparatus.
To assess the nutritional status of children treated with the classic and medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) ketogenic diets.
A prospective, nonrandomized study design was used to measure nutrient intakes, growth, and biochemical indexes of children, age 1 to 16 years, with intractable epilepsy before and after 4 months' treatment with the classic and MCT ketogenic diets. None of the children had been on earlier dietary regimens.
Of 58 children asked to participate in the study between September 1998 and July 2000, consent was obtained for 30 children. Fourteen children on the classic diet and 11 children on the MCT diet completed the study (83% completed). Statistical analysis performed Paired t tests were done on anthropometric and biochemical indexes. Nutrient intakes were compared with Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs).
Both groups had statistically significant height increases of 2 to 3 cm (P
Despite its health implications, the fibre intake of Irish children is unknown. The North/South Ireland Food Consumption Survey indicated that 77% of Irish adults do not consume adequate fibre and surveys of children and adolescents in Canada and Sweden have confirmed suboptimal fibre intake in these groups. This study undertook to assess fibre intake and the incidence of constipation in Irish children aged 5-8 years. Children admitted to hospital with an acute self-limiting medical illness were included in the study. Three day food diaries were recorded on discharge from hospital. The presence of constipation was ascertained Seventy six per cent of 135 children s diets did not contain adequate fibre. The incidence of constipation was 13.6% in those with inadequate fibre intake as opposed to 6% in those with adequate fibre intake. Poor dietary fibre needs to be addressed in the context of health promotion and disease prevention involving parents, health care professionals and government public policy.
OBJECTIVES: To investigate nutritional status and related living conditions among drug addicts in Oslo. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study of nutritional status evaluated by anthropometric and biochemical measurements; a structured interview concerning education, living conditions, income source, drug history and sex practice; and biochemical testing of sexually transmitted infections. SETTING: The present study was conducted between November 2001 and April 2003 in locations where the drug addicts reside in Oslo. SUBJECTS: A total of 123 male and seventy-two female addicts using drugs by injections regularly. RESULTS: We found that 20 % of the women were moderately underweight (BMI in kg/m2) (16.5
Erratum In: Public Health Nutr. 2009 May;12(5):728
AIMS: To study, within municipal care and county council care, (1) chief nurses' and registered nurses' perceptions of patient nutritional status assessment and nutritional assessment/screening tools, (2) registered nurses' perceptions of documentation in relation to nutrition and advantages and disadvantages with a documentation model. BACKGROUND: Chief nurses and registered nurses have a responsibility to identify malnourished patients and those at risk of malnutrition. DESIGN AND METHODS: In this descriptive study, 15 chief nurses in municipal care and 27 chief nurses in county council care were interviewed by telephone via a semi-structured interview guide. One hundred and thirty-one registered nurses (response rate 72%) from 14 municipalities and 28 hospital wards responded to the questionnaire, all in one county. RESULTS: According to the majority of chief nurses and registered nurses, only certain patients were assessed, on admission and/or during the stay. Nutritional assessment/screening tools and nutritional guidelines were seldom used. Most of the registered nurses documented nausea/vomiting, ability to eat and drink, diarrhoea and difficulties in chewing and swallowing, while energy intake and body mass index were rarely documented. However, the majority documented their judgement about the patient's nutritional condition. The registered nurses perceived the VIPS model (Swedish nursing documentation model) as a guideline as well as a model obstructing the information exchange. Differences were found between nurses (chief nurses/registered nurses) in municipal care and county council care, but not between registered nurses and their chief nurses. CONCLUSIONS: All patients are not nutritionally assessed and important nutritional parameters are not documented. Nutritionally compromised patients may remain unidentified and not properly cared for. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Assessment and documentation of the patients' nutritional status should be routinely performed in a more structured way in both municipal care and county council care. There is a need for increased nutritional nursing knowledge.