The genesis of the problem of food production and nutrition of African, Asian and Central and South American countries can be traced back to the beginning of 'inter-continental trade' and the emergence of colonialism. Indigenous food patterns and social and economic orders that had evolved to befit the inhabitants and the environment were destroyed. A nutritional framework and an agricultural and economic policy designed to benefit the colonising nations were fostered. At present, millions of people in the developing countries suffer from endemic undernutrition and associated diseases. Famine is always present under the surface claiming families and individual hamlets and breaks through when the semblance of equilibrium between minimal food requirement for survival and supply is disturbed by natural or man-made disaster. Landlessness, an uneven distribution of wealth, overemphasis on cash-crop production, neglect of peasant agriculture in favour of unnecessary expenditure on military hardware and other misguided projects, and crop specialisation are some of the factors responsible for food shortage and undernutrition. Moreover, most of the staple foods of the developing countries are of low energy density and deficient in some essential nutrients. The cycle of undernutrition, hunger, disease and death can only be broken by instituting a well planned, peasant-orientated, integrated development programme based on self-reliance and self-sufficiency.
The aim of this study was to examine the nutritional status of children of Mexican migrant worker families under five years of age within the context of global food markets. The sample included 404 children less than five years old from farms and agricultural communities in northwest Mexico. Prevalence of stunting and underweight of children appeared very similar to that of indigenous children from the national sample survey (difference 0.9 and 1.6 percentage points, respectively). Compared to the national sample of Mexican children, stunting and underweight seemed higher in migrant children (difference 17.7 and 4.5 percentage points, respectively), but wasting, an indicator of both chronic and acute undernutrition, appeared to indicate a process of nutritional recuperation. Migrant children living in poverty and suffering from chronic undernutrition, poor performance and scarce education opportunities, can be expected to eventually become agricultural workers with low productivity and poor general health. Consumer's demands on social and environmental standards of fresh food production in developed countries could be an opportunity to impact the lives of migrant agricultural workers, their families and communities.
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The present study is part of a comprehensive study performed by the Ryazan State Pedagogical University among teachers in different regions of the European part of Russia. It gives a hygienic assessment of actual nutrition in teachers of primary forms from Ryazan comprehensive schools, which was studied continuously during 7 days by questionnaire surveys of 307 teachers in winter and summer. The total dietary intake of protein was less than the normal physiological values in 16.1% of the teachers, higher in 53.4%, and normal in 30.5%. That of fat was less than the normal physiological value in 30.1% and greater in 25.8%. The dietary intake of carbohydrates was less than the normal physiological value in most cases (72.6%). In the primary-form teachers, the daily calorie intake was less than the normal physiological value. There was the highest deficiency of vitamins B1, PP, and C. Analysis of mineral composition indicated that calcium and magnesium were most deficient. Overweight was detected in 32.3% of the teachers. It is concluded that there is a need for balanced feeding in teachers, by expanding the assortment of full-value natural foods.
Rapid development, including the building of hydroelectric projects and roads in remote areas of Northern Quebec, Canada, has led to concerns about the contamination of traditional foods (TF) and a transition to a diet characterized by increased commercial food intake. A cross-sectional study of 850 Cree adults, aged =19 years, from 7 of the 9 Eeyouch communities was conducted during the spring and summer seasons of 2005-2008. Anthropometric measures were collected. TF and dietary intake were assessed using food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and 24-h recalls. Obesity was high, with 77% of the women and 64% of the men classified as obese. Past-year TF consumption was 100%, and 41% of participants reported eating TF on the 24-h recall. TF intake as reported on both the FFQs and the 24-h recalls was higher in individuals aged >50 years of age and in men, relative to younger adults and women, respectively. TF consumption increased protein, vitamin D, iron, and magnesium in all individuals, and energy, cholesterol, magnesium, sodium, and zinc in men aged 19-50 years; it decreased vitamin C in men and women aged =51 years. Participants reported drinking a mean daily 0.78 ± 1.34 cans of soft drinks or other high-sugar beverages per day or 5.28% ± 8.92% of total energy. It is important to identify behaviours that are contributing to obesity and its health consequences in this population and to find culturally appropriate ways to promote the consumption of TF and to reduce the consumption of energy-dense and nutrient-poor beverages and food items.
The article presents, on the basis of twenty-year monitoring of trophic status of recruits (1995-2015) drafted to Kola trans-polar territories, dependence of individuals with undernourishment and lower nutrition from national macro-economic indices during the period after expressed crisis economic occurrences percentage of individuals with lower trophic status increased. The article proposes technique of social economic monitoring of accessibility of food market in all territories and at all levels of executive authorities based on analysis of trophic status of minors according results of dispensarization. The school meals is proposed to be included into the education standard of secondary school with the purpose of health promotion of the youth.