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Effect of nutritional intervention on body composition and performance in elite athletes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature113847
Source
Eur J Sport Sci. 2013;13(3):295-303
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Ina Garthe
Truls Raastad
Per Egil Refsnes
Jorunn Sundgot-Borgen
Author Affiliation
Department of Sports Medicine, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway. ina.garthe@olympiatoppen.no
Source
Eur J Sport Sci. 2013;13(3):295-303
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Absorptiometry, Photon
Adolescent
Adult
Anthropometry
Athletic Performance - physiology
Body Composition - physiology
Body Weight - physiology
Energy Intake - physiology
Energy Metabolism
Female
Food Habits - physiology
Humans
Male
Muscle Strength - physiology
Norway
Nutritional Requirements - physiology
Sports - physiology
Young Adult
Abstract
Strength training and positive energy intake are the most important factors related to lean body mass (LBM) gain. Most studies investigating weight-gain interventions are based recreationally active subjects and less is known about optimal weight-gain protocols in elite athletes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of nutritional guidance in an 8- to 12-week weight-gain period in elite athletes. Thirty-nine elite athletes were randomised to either a 'nutritional counseling group' (NCG, n=21, 19.1±2.9 years, 70.9±8.9 kg) or 'ad libitum group' (ALG, n=18, 19.6±2.7 years, 75.0±5.9 kg). All athletes continued their sport-specific training which included an additional four strength-training sessions per week. NCG followed a meal plan providing a positive energy balance, while the ALG athletes had an ad libitum energy intake. Body weight (BW), body composition, one repetition maximum (1RM), 40 m sprint and counter movement jump (CMJ) were measured pre- and post-intervention. Energy intake was higher in the NCG than in the ALG (3585±601 vs. 2964±884 kcal) and consequently BW increased more in NCG than in ALG (3.9±0.6% vs. 1.5±0.4%). Fat mass (FM) increased more in NCG than in ALG (15±4 vs. 3±3%), but gain in LBM was not different between groups. All 1RM results improved in both groups (6-12%), whereas 40 m sprint and CMJ remained unchanged, except for a significant decrease in 40 m sprint for the athletes in NCG. Athletes with nutritional guidance increased BW more, however, excess energy intake in a weight-gain protocol should be considered carefully due to undesirable increases in body fat.
PubMed ID
23679146 View in PubMed
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Food and Nutrient Intake and Nutritional Status of Finnish Vegans and Non-Vegetarians.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature274806
Source
PLoS One. 2016;11(2):e0148235
Publication Type
Article
Date
2016
Author
Anna-Liisa Elorinne
Georg Alfthan
Iris Erlund
Hanna Kivimäki
Annukka Paju
Irma Salminen
Ursula Turpeinen
Sari Voutilainen
Juha Laakso
Source
PLoS One. 2016;11(2):e0148235
Date
2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Cholecalciferol - blood
Diet, Vegan - statistics & numerical data
Diet, Vegetarian - statistics & numerical data
Dietary Supplements
Eating
Eicosapentaenoic Acid - blood
Energy intake
Fatty Acids - blood
Female
Finland
Food
Food Habits
Genistein - blood
Humans
Iodine - blood - urine
Isoflavones - blood
Male
Middle Aged
Nutritional Requirements - physiology
Nutritional Status - physiology
Polyphenols - blood
Selenium - blood
Vegans
Vegetarians
Vitamin B 12 - blood
Young Adult
Abstract
Vegetarian and vegan diets have become more popular among adolescents and young adults. However, few studies have investigated the nutritional status of vegans, who may be at risk of nutritional deficiencies.
To compare dietary intake and nutritional status of Finnish long-term vegans and non-vegetarians.
Dietary intake and supplement use were estimated using three-day dietary records. Nutritional status was assessed by measuring biomarkers in plasma, serum, and urine samples. Vegans' (n = 22) data was compared with those of sex- and age-matched non-vegetarians (n = 19).
All vegans adhered strictly to their diet; however, individual variability was marked in food consumption and supplementation habits. Dietary intakes of key nutrients, vitamins B12 and D, were lower (P
Notes
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Erratum In: PLoS One. 2016;11(3):e015129626938063
PubMed ID
26840251 View in PubMed
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Food and water security issues in Russia I: food security in the general population of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, 2000-2011.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature105147
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2013;72:21848
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Alexey A Dudarev
Pavel R Alloyarov
Valery S Chupakhin
Eugenia V Dushkina
Yuliya N Sladkova
Vitaliy M Dorofeyev
Tatijana A Kolesnikova
Kirill B Fridman
Lena Maria Nilsson
Birgitta Evengård
Author Affiliation
Northwest Public Health Research Center, St. Petersburg, Russia.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2013;72:21848
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Arctic Regions - epidemiology
Costs and Cost Analysis
Diet - economics - standards - statistics & numerical data
Far East - epidemiology
Food Contamination - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Food Microbiology - statistics & numerical data
Food Safety
Food Supply - economics - standards - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Malnutrition - economics - epidemiology - etiology
Nutrition Surveys
Nutritional Requirements - physiology
Russia - epidemiology
Siberia - epidemiology
Abstract
Problems related to food security in Russian Arctic (dietary imbalance, predominance of carbohydrates, shortage of milk products, vegetables and fruits, deficit of vitamins and microelements, chemical, infectious and parasitic food contamination) have been defined in the literature. But no standard protocol of food security assessment has been used in the majority of studies.
Our aim was to obtain food security indicators, identified within an Arctic collaboration, for selected regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, and to compare food safety in these territories.
In 18 regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, the following indicators of food security were analyzed: food costs, food consumption, and chemical and biological food contamination for the period 2000-2011.
Food costs in the regions are high, comprising 23-43% of household income. Only 4 out of 10 food groups (fish products, cereals, sugar, plant oil) are consumed in sufficient amounts. The consumption of milk products, eggs, vegetables, potatoes, fruits (and berries) is severely low in a majority of the selected regions. There are high levels of biological contamination of food in many regions. The biological and chemical contamination situation is alarming, especially in Chukotka. Only 7 food pollutants are under regular control; among pesticides, only DDT. Evenki AO and Magadan Oblast have reached peak values in food contaminants compared with other regions. Mercury in local fish has not been analyzed in the majority of the regions. In 3 regions, no monitoring of DDT occurs. Aflatoxins have not been analyzed in 5 regions. Nitrates had the highest percentage in excess of the hygienic threshold in all regions. Excesses of other pollutants in different regions were episodic and as a rule not high.
Improvement of the food supply and food accessibility in the regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East is of utmost importance. Both quantitative and qualitative control of chemical and biological contaminants in food is insufficient and demands radical enhancement aimed at improving food security.
Notes
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PubMed ID
24471055 View in PubMed
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[HYGIENIC ASSESSMENT OF WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMINS CONTENT IN THE FOOD RATION OF ADOLESCENTS].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature270126
Source
Gig Sanit. 2015;94(8):40-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
O V Kozubenko
D V Turchaninov
L A Boyarskaya
O N Glagoleva
I S Pogodin
E A Luksha
Source
Gig Sanit. 2015;94(8):40-5
Date
2015
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Female
Food - standards
Food Analysis - methods
Food Habits
Humans
Hygiene
Male
Nutritional Requirements - physiology
Nutritional Status
Siberia
Vitamins - chemistry
Abstract
Adequate, balanced nutrition is a precondition for the formation of health of the younger generation. The study of the dietary intake and peculiarities of the chemical composition offood is needed to substantiate measures aimed at the correction of the ration of adolescents.
Hygienic evaluation of the content of water soluble vitamins in foods and the ration of teenage population of the Omsk region. TASKS OF THE STUDY: 1. To determine levels of water-soluble vitamins content in foods forming the basis of the ration of the population the Omsk region. 2. On the base of a study of the actual nutrition of adolescents to determine the levels of water-soluble vitamins consumption. 3. To give a hygienic assessment of adolescent nutrition in the Omsk region in terms of provision with water-soluble vitamins, and to identify priority directions of the alimentary correction of the revealed disorders.
The analysis of 389 food samples for the content of water-soluble vitamins (B1, B2, B6, PP C, folic acid) was performed with the use of reversed-phase HPLC high pressure on the Shimadzu LC-20 Prominence detector. The hygienic assessment of the actual nutrition of adolescents aged 13-17 years (sample survey; n = 250; 2012-2014) in the Omsk region was performed by the method of the analysis of food consumption frequency.
There were noted significantly lower concentrations of vitamin B1 and B2 in the studied samples of cereals, bread and vegetables in comparison with reference data. Consumption levels of vitamins B1, B2, PP folic acid in the diet of adolescents in the Omsk region are lower than recommended values. In the structure of nutrition there is not enough milk dairy products--in 82.4 ± 2.4%, fish and sea products in 90.8 ± 1.8% of adolescents.
The actual nutrition of the adolescent population of the Omsk region is irrational, unbalanced in quantitative and qualitative terms, and does not provide the necessary level of consumption of most important water-soluble vitamins. Priority for the correction nutrients there are B1, B2, folic acid (B0).
PubMed ID
26856171 View in PubMed
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[The analysis of domestic and international policy of food fortification with vitamins].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature278009
Source
Vopr Pitan. 2016;85(2):31-50
Publication Type
Article
Date
2016
Author
V M Kodentsova
O A Vrzhesinskaya
Source
Vopr Pitan. 2016;85(2):31-50
Date
2016
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Avitaminosis - blood - prevention & control
Food, Fortified - standards
Government Regulation
Nutrition Policy - legislation & jurisprudence
Nutritional Requirements - physiology
Russia
Vitamins - administration & dosage - blood
Abstract
Fortification of food products of mass consumption with vitamins is a modern, most cost-effective, efficient and physiological way to improve the vitamin status of the population. Free or voluntary enrichment on the initiative of producers is used in the industrialized countries at low risk for inadequate population intake of micronutrients. Enrichment of products of mass consumption is almost always mandatory, legislative consolidated, while target enrichment of foods intended for different groups can be both mandatory and voluntary The criteria for the effectiveness of mandatory food fortification are an increase of certain vitamin consumption, reduce of the relative number of people with inadequate intake of certain micronutrients, improvement of micronutrient sufficiency (blood level), enhancement of biomarkers of some alimentar diseases, reduction of the frequency of congenital defects (neural tube defect). Assessment of risk/benefit ratio indicates safety of mandatory fortification of flour with B vitamins. In Russia, the regulatory framework for food fortification (enrichment levels, forms of vitamins) has been yet laborated. But initiative enrichment, held in Russia, does not give the desired result. An urgent need for legislative mandatory fortification of products consumed by the majority of the population (bread, milk) with B vitamins (the lack of which is the most frequently detected in the population of Russia) arose in a lack of knowledge of the population about the benefits of fortified foods and lack of preference in the selection of such products.
PubMed ID
27455599 View in PubMed
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