Little has been published on cultural competency curriculum and dietetics considering the impact of food-related beliefs and behaviours on health. A 14-item online survey was administered in January 2016 to 145 participants (125 members of Dietitians of Canada Aboriginal Nutrition Network and 20 dietitians with an interest in Aboriginal nutrition). Questions included multiple choice and ranking responses and were pretested by 4 preceptors with the Northern Ontario Dietetic Internship Program (NODIP). Quantitative data analysis included frequencies, pivot tables, and averaging/grouping of ranking scores. A total of 42 individuals (29%) completed the survey. The majority rated the 5 health and cultural competencies and 6 food and nutrition competencies as "important" (90%-98% and 86%-100%, respectively). Overall, the competency related to identifying health status was ranked highest (78%), whereas developing culturally appropriate recipes was ranked lowest (83%). Most participants (95%) believed that all dietitians and graduating dietetic interns should be minimally competent in Aboriginal health and culture. The initial 11 draft competencies for dietetic interns were condensed to 6 minimum and 2 advanced competencies. Results will inform dietitians working with Aboriginal peoples and refinement of NODIP intern and preceptor tools, with the potential to integrate across Canadian dietetic internship programs.
The rate of obesity and associated risk factors in Canadian youth is increasing at an alarming rate. Nutrition plays an important role in weight maintenance. This study reports the effectiveness of Action Schools! BC---Healthy Eating, a school-based fruit and vegetable (FV) intervention, in effecting change in: 1) students' intake of FV, 2) students' knowledge, attitudes and perceptions regarding FV, and 3) students' willingness to try new FV.
Five schools that represented geographic, socio-economic and size variation were recruited as Action Schools! BC--Healthy Eating intervention schools. A second set of five schools were selected as matched healthy eating usual practice schools. Student outcomes were measured at baseline and at 12-week follow-up using self-report questionnaires. Classroom logs and progress reports were used to assess implementation dose and fidelity. The intervention included school-wide activities based on individualized Action Plans addressing goals across six Action Zones.
Significant differences were found between conditions over time while controlling for baseline levels. Fruit servings, FV servings, FV variety, and percent of FV tried from a fixed list increased in intervention schools. Teachers implemented a mean of 64% of requested classroom dose, and school Action Teams implemented activities across 80% of the whole-school model.
A whole-school framework can impact FV intake, but results were modest due to implementation issues. Further implementation and evaluation are necessary to fully understand the effectiveness of this initiative.
The account of quantitative and qualitative structure of diets of children of children's houses has revealed infringements in organisation of mode of a meals, and also unbalance of diet on structure of food substances, including on iodine, that can promote development of iodine-dependence diseases.
Despite assumed similarities in Canadian and US dietary habits, some differences in food availability and nutrient fortification exist. Food-frequency questionnaires designed for the USA may therefore not provide the most accurate estimates of dietary intake in Canadian populations. Hence, we undertook to evaluate and modify the National Cancer Institute's Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ) and nutrient database.
Of the foods queried on the DHQ, those most likely to differ in nutrient composition were identified. Where possible these foods were matched to comparable foods in the Canadian Nutrient File. Nutrient values were examined and modified to reflect the Canadian content of minerals (calcium, iron, zinc) and vitamins (A, C, D, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, B6, folate and B12). DHQs completed by 13 181 Alberta Cohort Study participants aged 35-69 years were analysed to estimate nutrient intakes using the original US and modified versions of the DHQ databases. Misclassification of intake for meeting the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) was determined following analysis with the US nutrient database.
Twenty-five per cent of 2411 foods deemed most likely to differ in nutrient profile were subsequently modified for folate, 11% for vitamin D, 10% for calcium and riboflavin, and between 7 and 10% for the remaining nutrients of interest. Misclassification with respect to meeting the DRI varied but was highest for folate (7%) and vitamin A (7%) among men, and for vitamin D (7%) among women over 50 years of age.
Errors in nutrient intake estimates owing to differences in food fortification between the USA and Canada can be reduced in Canadian populations by using nutrient databases that reflect Canadian fortification practices.
Despite its health implications, the fibre intake of Irish children is unknown. The North/South Ireland Food Consumption Survey indicated that 77% of Irish adults do not consume adequate fibre and surveys of children and adolescents in Canada and Sweden have confirmed suboptimal fibre intake in these groups. This study undertook to assess fibre intake and the incidence of constipation in Irish children aged 5-8 years. Children admitted to hospital with an acute self-limiting medical illness were included in the study. Three day food diaries were recorded on discharge from hospital. The presence of constipation was ascertained Seventy six per cent of 135 children s diets did not contain adequate fibre. The incidence of constipation was 13.6% in those with inadequate fibre intake as opposed to 6% in those with adequate fibre intake. Poor dietary fibre needs to be addressed in the context of health promotion and disease prevention involving parents, health care professionals and government public policy.
A number of studies have pointed to the pressure that housing costs can exert on the resources available for food. The objectives of the present study were to characterise the relationship between the proportion of income absorbed by housing and the adequacy of household food expenditures across the Canadian population and within income quintiles; and to elucidate the impact of receipt of a housing subsidy on adequacy of food expenditures among low-income tenant households.
The 2001 Survey of Household Spending, conducted by Statistics Canada, was a national cross-sectional survey that collected detailed information on expenditures on goods and services. The adequacy of food spending was assessed in relation to the cost of a basic nutritious diet.
The person with primary responsibility for financial maintenance from 15 535 households from all provinces and territories.
As the proportion of income allocated to housing increased, food spending adequacy declined significantly among households in the three lowest income quintiles. After accounting for household income and composition, receipt of a housing subsidy was associated with an improvement in adequacy of food spending among low-income tenant households, but still mean food spending fell below the cost of a basic nutritious diet even among subsidised households.
This study indicates that housing costs compromise the food access of some low-income households and speaks to the need to re-examine policies related to housing affordability and income adequacy.
To compare the nutrient and food intake of Sami still engaged in reindeer herding (traditional lifestyle or reindeer-herding Sami [RS]) and Sami not involved in reindeer herding (industrialized lifestyle or non-reindeer-herding Sami [NRS]) with other northern Swedish populations.
Cross-sectional analysis of data from a prospective cardiovascular intervention program in northern Sweden.
Data were used from a prospective cardiovascular intervention program in northern Sweden. Sami recruited into this study were divided according to whether they were involved in reindeer herding (traditional lifestyle, RS) (66 females, 79 males) or not (NRS) (255 females, 195 males), and compared to non-Sami from the same area taking part in the same study (controls) (499 females, 501 males). Subjects completed a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and clinical parameters were analysed.
RS had a higher overall intake of energy for both females (P