To determine the association between physical activity and overweight/obesity in Mexican adults.
Cross-sectional design. Adults 20 to 69 years of age were included in the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT 2006). The dependent variable was overweight/obesity and the independent variable was recalled physical activity. Analysis was by logistic regression, adjusting for sex, age, residence area, region, socioeconomic status, indigenous ethnicity, smoking, schooling, work activity, alcohol consumption and sitting time.
Data from 15 901 adults were analyzed. The prevalence of overweight/obesity had an inverse association with physical activity among men but not among women.
The practice of physical activity was negatively associated with the prevalence of overweight/obesity only in adult men. These results underscore the importance of promoting physical activity to prevent and control overweight/obesity.
Norwegian Health authorities recommend solid food to be introduced between child age 4-6 months, depending on both the mother´s and infant's needs. The aim of this paper is to describe timing of complementary feeding in a current sample of Norwegian mother/infant-dyads and explore potential associations between timing of introduction to solid foods and a wide range of maternal and infant characteristics known from previous literature to influence early feeding interactions. The paper is based on data from the Norwegian randomized controlled trial Early Food for Future Health. In 2016, a total of 715 mothers completed a web-based questionnaire at child age 5.5 months. We found that 5% of the infants were introduced to solid food before 4 months of age, while 14% were not introduced to solid food at 5.5 months of age. Introduction of solid food before 4 months of age was associated with the infant not being exclusive breastfed the first month, receiving only formula milk at 3 months, the mother being younger, not married/cohabitant, smoking, less educated and having more economic difficulties. Not being introduced to solid food at 5.5 months was associated with the infant being a girl, being exclusive breastfed the first month, receiving only breastmilk at 3 months, the mother being older, married and having 3 or more children. This study shows that there are still clear socioeconomic differences regarding timing of complementary feeding in Norway. Infants of younger, less educated and smoking mothers are at higher risk of not being fed in compliance with the official infant feeding recommendations. Our findings emphasize the importance of targeting socioeconomically disadvantaged mothers for support on healthy feeding practices focusing on the infant`s needs to prevent early onset of social inequalities in health.
One of the effective ways of normalization of micronutrients deficiency (vitamins, mineral substances etc.) for children and adult population--use of the specialized foodstuffs enriched with essential food substances in a daily diet is considered in the paper. On the basis of the analysis of foreign experience and the data accumulated as a result of performance of some state scientific and technical programs and the major projects of the Ministry of Science, Industry and Technologies of the Russian Federation, the basic scientific principles of enrichment of foodstuffs with vitamins and mineral substances are considered. In view of these principles the wide range of products of preventive purpose is developed: bakery, confectionery products, grain concentrates, dry mixes for preparation of the beverages, enriched with vitamins and some mineral substances (iron, calcium, magnesium). Large-scale clinical approbation of the developed products on various groups of the population (children of preschool and school age, pregnant women, workers of hard trades, patients with hypertonic disease, diabetes), has shown their efficiency both in the improvement of the vitamin status of surveyed and some therapeutic parameters. Circulars, instruction on application, methodical recommendations are developed and authorized.
The purpose of this study is to provide information on the current sources of dietary sodium in the Canadian food supply to provide a baseline to measure against the effectiveness of strategies to reduce salt consumption. Such strategies are being developed by a Health Canada-led multistakeholder Working Group. Data from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) 2.2, Nutrition, were used to determine the leading food group contributors of sodium in the diet. The total sample size was more than 35,000 respondents. The results from this study were reported for 4 age and sex groups, namely, youths aged 1 to 8 years, youths aged 9 to 18 years, males aged 19 years and older, and females aged 19 years and older. Average daily intakes of sodium for these groups were 2388 mg, 3412 mg, 3587 mg, and 2684 mg, respectively. In all cases these intakes exceeded the tolerable upper intake level (UL) established by the Institute of Medicine, as well as targets set by the governments of the United Kingdom and the United States and the World Health Organization. The contribution of sodium to the food supply by the top 40 food groups is presented for each of the age and sex groups. The key food group contributors of sodium are breads (13.88%), processed meats (8.90%), and pasta dishes (5.67%). Although breads are found to be major contributors of sodium, this is mainly because of the large consumption, rather than a high concentration of sodium. Higher-sodium foods, such as processed meats, are eaten in smaller quantities but, because of their sodium density, contribute significant amounts of sodium to the diet of Canadians. Some very high sodium foods, such as frozen dinners, are eaten by only a small proportion of the population, but for those consuming these, the sodium could contribute a significant proportion of the UL just from a single meal.
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to develop a dietary instrument (food frequency questionnaire [FFQ]) that measured total dietary intake over 1 year among Alaska Native people in 2 regions. Ways of assessing diet are needed in order to accurately evaluate how the diets of Alaska Natives relate to their health. STUDY DESIGN: Seasonal 24-hour (24-h) diet recalls were collected for developing an FFQ that described the average dietary foods and nutrients consumed. Alaska Native people living in 12 small communities in 2 regions of the state were eligible to participate. METHODS: Each participant was to provide 4 24-h diet recalls, 1 per season. Recalls were used to develop an FFQ using regression techniques. The FFQ was administered to 58 of the 333 original participants. Responses to the FFQ were compared to the averages of their 24-h recalls using the Spearman Correlation Coefficient. RESULTS: Energy-adjusted correlations ranged from 0.15 for protein to 0.49 for monounsaturated fatty acids. Fifteen of 26 nutrients examined were significantly correlated (total carbohydrates, sucrose, fructose, total fat, fatty acids [monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, omega 3, EPA, DHA], folate, vitamins A, C, D, potassium and selenium). CONCLUSIONS: The FFQ can be used to evaluate intakes of Alaska Natives in western Alaska for the correlated nutrients.
This study aims to measure the difficulty of healthy eating as a single latent construct and, within that, assess which dietary guidelines consumers find more or less difficult to comply with using the Rasch model approach. Participants self-reported their compliance with 12 health-promoting dietary recommendations related to cooking methods and consumption of specific food items. Data were drawn from a survey elicited using a longitudinal consumer panel established in the City of Guelph, Ontario, Canada in 2008. The panel consists of 1962 randomly-selected residents of Guelph between the age of 20 and 69 years. The response rate was equal to 68 percent. The main assumptions of the Rasch model were satisfied. However, subsequent differential item functioning analysis revealed significant scale variations by gender, education, age and household income, which reduced the validity of the Rasch scale. Conversely, these scale variations highlight the importance of socio-economic and demographic factors on the difficulty of healthy eating.
The aim of our research was to investigate the level of 25-OH vitamin D3 in blood plasma of indigenous inhabitants of Russia European North. The study showed that there was wide spreading of vitamin D deficiency among northerners especially in teenager. The significant reduction of level of 25-OH vitamin D3 was revealed in the inhabitants of Far North in March.
Dietary transition in the Arctic is associated with decreased quality of diet, which is of particular concern for women of childbearing age due to the potential impact of maternal nutrition status on the next generation. The study assessed dietary intake and adequacy among Inuit women of childbearing age living in three communities in Nunavut, Canada. A culturally-appropriate quantitative food-frequency questionnaire was administered to 106 Inuit women aged 19-44 years. Sources of key foods, energy and nutrient intakes were determined; dietary adequacy was determined by comparing nutrient intakes with recommendations. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was >70%, and many consumed inadequate dietary fibre, folate, calcium, potassium, magnesium, and vitamin A, D, E, and K. Non-nutrient-dense foods were primary sources of fat, carbohydrate and sugar intakes and contributed >30% of energy. Traditional foods accounted for 21% of energy and >50% of protein and iron intakes. Strategies to improve weight status and nutrient intake are needed among Inuit women in this important life stage.
The aim of this study is to report on preliminary data regarding the prevalence of major eye diseases in Korea.
We obtained data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a nation-wide cross-sectional survey and examinations of the non-institutionalized civilian population in South Korea (n = 14,606), conducted from July 2008 to December 2009. Field survey teams included an ophthalmologist, nurses, and interviewers, traveled with a mobile examination unit and performed interviews and ophthalmologic examinations.
The prevalence of visual impairment, myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism in participants over 5 years of age was 0.4 ± 0.1%, 53.7 ± 0.6%, 10.7 ± 0.4%, and 58.0 ± 0.6%, respectively. The prevalence of strabismus and blepharoptosis in participants over 3 years of age was 1.5 ± 0.1% and 11.0 ± 0.8%, respectively. In participants over 40 years of age, the prevalence of cataract, pterygium, early and late age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma was 40.2 ± 1.3%, 8.9 ± 0.5%, 5.1 ± 0.3%, 0.5 ± 0.1%, 13.4 ± 1.5%, and 2.1 ± 0.2%, respectively.
This is the first nation-wide epidemiologic study conducted in South Korea for assessment of the prevalence of eye diseases by both the Korean Ophthalmologic Society and the Korea Center for Disease Control and Prevention. This study will provide preliminary information for use in further investigation, prevention, and management of eye diseases in Korea.
Humans are exposed to poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from diverse sources and this has been associated with negative health impacts. Advances in analytical methods have enabled routine detection of more than 15 PFASs in human sera, allowing better profiling of PFAS exposures. The composition of PFASs in human sera reflects the complexity of exposure sources but source identification can be confounded by differences in toxicokinetics affecting uptake, distribution, and elimination. Common PFASs, such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and their precursors are ubiquitous in multiple exposure sources. However, their composition varies among sources, which may impact associated adverse health effects.
We use available PFAS concentrations from several demographic groups in a North Atlantic seafood consuming population (Faroe Islands) to explore whether chemical fingerprints in human sera provide insights into predominant exposure sources. We compare serum PFAS profiles from Faroese individuals to other North American populations to investigate commonalities in potential exposure sources. We compare individuals with similar demographic and physiological characteristics and samples from the same years to reduce confounding by toxicokinetic differences and changing environmental releases.
Using principal components analysis (PCA) confirmed by hierarchical clustering, we assess variability in serum PFAS concentrations across three Faroese groups. The first principal component (PC)/cluster consists of C9-C12 perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) and is consistent with measured PFAS profiles in consumed seafood. The second PC/cluster includes perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS) and the PFOS precursor N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamidoacetate (N-EtFOSAA), which are directly used or metabolized from fluorochemicals in consumer products such as carpet and food packaging. We find that the same compounds are associated with the same exposure sources in two North American populations, suggesting generalizability of results from the Faroese population.
We conclude that PFAS homologue profiles in serum provide valuable information on major exposure sources. It is essential to compare samples collected at similar time periods and to correct for demographic groups that are highly affected by differences in physiological processes (e.g., pregnancy). Information on PFAS homologue profiles is crucial for attributing adverse health effects to the proper mixtures or individual PFASs.