The aim of this study was to evaluate the dietary iron intake of 15-year-old adolescents from two different regions of Sweden, in relation to their iron status. The study comprised 185 boys and 209 girls, randomly selected from the official population register. The iron intake was calculated from a 7-day record, and varied between 7 and 35 and 6 and 27 mg per day for boys and girls, respectively. The daily median intakes in boys and girls were 18.7 and 14.2 mg, respectively. S-ferritin, s-iron, and s-transferrin saturation, measured in all the subjects, did not differ significantly between the two regions. However, the mean serum ferritin concentration was significantly higher in the boys (36.4 micrograms l-1) than in the girls (29.4 micrograms l-1) (p
AIMS AND OBJECTIVITIES: The aims were to test internal consistency and interrater reliability of Mini Nutritional Assessment during implementation of Mini Nutritional Assessment in community residential homes and to test sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic predictivity of Mini Nutritional Assessment-short form vs. Mini Nutritional Assessment. BACKGROUND: There is a need in clinical practice to assess nutritional status in older people and to identify those who could benefit from early intervention. METHODS: The two-step Mini Nutritional Assessment procedure (Mini Nutritional Assessment-short form and Mini Nutritional Assessment) was used in 127 older people admitted to eight residential homes. In three of those homes (A, B and C), registered nurses simultaneously performed the assessment procedure, after receiving education and training. The intention was to offer the registered nurses a tool for independent practice use. RESULTS: Internal consistency was 0.68 (Cronbach's alpha) (n = 127). In residential home A, B and C, the registered nurses carried out Mini Nutritional Assessment in 45 residents out of 68. The agreement level between the author's and the registered nurses' assessments was 62% (kappa 0.41). In residential home A, B and C, the agreement level was 89%, 89% and 44%, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic predictivity of Mini Nutritional Assessment-short form vs. Mini Nutritional Assessment were 89%, 82% and 92%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The two-step Mini Nutritional Assessment procedure seems to be a useful tool to identify residents in need of nutritional interventions, despite the registered nurses not carrying out Mini Nutritional Assessment in all residents and the low agreement in residential home C. It indicates that to implement and use Mini Nutritional Assessment in nursing care demands the creating necessary staff resources, such as adequate staffing, sufficient education and continual supervision. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Because of the high sensitivity of Mini Nutritional Assessment-short form and Mini Nutritional Assessment, Mini Nutritional Assessment-short form alone might be sufficient for practice use, as its simplicity might increase its usefulness.
In 1930 a nutrition survey was made of 1675 school children in the county of Västerbotten in northern Sweden. In 1967 a second survey was carried out in the same area, covering 1411 children aged 4, 8 and 13 years. A third survey was carried out in 1980 of 572 children in the same age groups. In the first survey questionnaires concerning food consumption were used, in the two later surveys 24-hour recall of food intake was recorded. Underweight and iron deficiency anaemia were prevalent in 1930. Since then socio-economic conditions have improved dramatically and dietary habits have become more diversified. In the last study the average energy intake had decreased from 100 to 87% of the RDA. A slight increase in the prevalence of overweight among 13-year-old children was also noted. The fat intake was lower in 1980 than in 1967, but the P/S-ratio was still low (0.23). The iron intake reached a satisfactory level in the two later studies and no case of iron-deficiency anaemia was found in 1980. In spite of a relatively frequent sucrose intake dental health had improved as a consequence of other prophylactic activities. The malnutrition problems of 1930 have been eradicated but new nutritional problems, linked to the risk of developing obesity and health problems in adulthood such as coronary heart disease, call for new preventive strategies.