Physical development is one of the important health indices in children. Anthropometric data were analyzed in 660 and 113 children from rich and poor families, respectively. The performed investigation revealed the following features of physical development of children in families with different financial position: (1) impaired physical development is equally common in the families with low (284.85% per hundred) and high (292.04% per hundred) incomes (p > 0.05); (2) the pattern of distribution of different types of physical development is not determined by the financial position of a family; however, it may be noted that there is a preponderance of children with disharmonious development in the high-income families due to excess weight for both average age indices and height. Every seven child from a high-income family has excess weight. Naturally, the lower financial position of a family is, the higher proportion of children with nutritional state below the average low values is; (3) the children in low-income families have lower height. The revealed specific features may be largely accounted for by specific nutritional features and motor activity in children, which should be kept in mind in working out the programs on therapeutic-and-prophylactic work with these population categories.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the dietary iron intake of 15-year-old adolescents from two different regions of Sweden, in relation to their iron status. The study comprised 185 boys and 209 girls, randomly selected from the official population register. The iron intake was calculated from a 7-day record, and varied between 7 and 35 and 6 and 27 mg per day for boys and girls, respectively. The daily median intakes in boys and girls were 18.7 and 14.2 mg, respectively. S-ferritin, s-iron, and s-transferrin saturation, measured in all the subjects, did not differ significantly between the two regions. However, the mean serum ferritin concentration was significantly higher in the boys (36.4 micrograms l-1) than in the girls (29.4 micrograms l-1) (p
We examined the quality of food outlet addresses provided by secondary sources and determined whether they could be physically located in the field.
Addresses of food outlets in fourteen school districts in the northern part of Copenhagen were obtained from multiple business locators. We geocoded 202 addresses using a geographic information system and cross-referenced the sources against each other using a validation grid. Physical presence was determined via street survey. We applied gamma statistics and calculated positive predictive value, sensitivity and percentage agreement to assess the overall correspondence between our test of physical presence and each source of secondary information.
The study took place within city boundaries of Copenhagen, Denmark.
Food outlets within fourteen school districts within Copenhagen.
Positive predictive value between field results and secondary sources indicated good to excellent correspondence (range: 0·81-0·98), comparable with other studies. Gamma coefficients indicated low to high positive correspondence (range: 0·23-0·98).
Despite moderately high correspondence between secondary sources of address information and field observation, the findings illustrate that the use of combined sources is recommended.
In 1930 a nutrition survey was made of 1675 school children in the county of Västerbotten in northern Sweden. In 1967 a second survey was carried out in the same area, covering 1411 children aged 4, 8 and 13 years. A third survey was carried out in 1980 of 572 children in the same age groups. In the first survey questionnaires concerning food consumption were used, in the two later surveys 24-hour recall of food intake was recorded. Underweight and iron deficiency anaemia were prevalent in 1930. Since then socio-economic conditions have improved dramatically and dietary habits have become more diversified. In the last study the average energy intake had decreased from 100 to 87% of the RDA. A slight increase in the prevalence of overweight among 13-year-old children was also noted. The fat intake was lower in 1980 than in 1967, but the P/S-ratio was still low (0.23). The iron intake reached a satisfactory level in the two later studies and no case of iron-deficiency anaemia was found in 1980. In spite of a relatively frequent sucrose intake dental health had improved as a consequence of other prophylactic activities. The malnutrition problems of 1930 have been eradicated but new nutritional problems, linked to the risk of developing obesity and health problems in adulthood such as coronary heart disease, call for new preventive strategies.
The complex estimation of the impact of socio-hygienic lifestyle factors on the health of students has been performed. In the work the data of sociological analysis (questionnaire), the methods of multivariate statistics (correlation, regression analysis, method of correlation pleiades by P. V. Terentiev) were used. Among the analyzed components the average monthly income was found to make the greatest contribution of the health state and physical capacity of the studied contingent of students. The influence of this factor is most pronounced in a group of students with an average wealth. The quality of nutrition and the mode of life depend on the level of material well-being of students. Students with a deficiency or excess body weight are more susceptible to the effects of such lifestyle factors such as nutrition, physical activity, bad habits and prosperity.
Food insecurity, which has been recognized as an important determinant of health, is estimated to have affected almost one in ten Canadian households in 2004. Analyses of indicators of household food insecurity on several recent population health surveys have shed light on markers of vulnerability and the public health implications of this problem. However, the lack of detailed information on the economic circumstances of households and inconsistent measurement across surveys thwart attempts to develop a deeper understanding of problems of food insecurity. To better inform the development and evaluation of policies to address food insecurity among Canadian households, more effective monitoring is needed. This requires the consistent administration of a well-validated measure of food security on a population survey that routinely collects detailed information on the economic circumstances of households. Health professionals can contribute to the amelioration of problems of food insecurity in Canada by advocating for improved monitoring of the problem at a population level.
To examine the cost of fruits and vegetables (FV) with respect to different food store types, urbanization level and material deprivation for various urban areas of greater Quebec City.
A sample of 85 food stores was selected. They represented five store types (small, conventional, and large grocery stores; greengrocers; convenience stores) in four geographic areas reflecting three different socio-economic levels. We identified three FV baskets (grocery, fresh FV, convenience) by drawing on data on household food spending and consumption, and food supply in the five store types. Four investigators were trained to conduct a survey of prices for the week of September 17-23, 2007. Analysis of variance and t tests were conducted to examine variations in food baskets with regard to the variables defined in this study. A chi-square test was used to measure the frequency distribution of stores throughout the greater Quebec City.
Only food store type had a significant influence on FV cost: cost was much lower in large grocery stores and greengrocers. Convenience stores, where prices are higher, outnumbered all others in deprived urban areas, supporting the contention that there are inequities in economic access.
Economic access to FV may differ by area in the greater Quebec City, putting rural inhabitants and less privileged urban dwellers at the greatest disadvantage; this may, in turn, contribute to health disparities. The results point to the need to improve our understanding of the way components of the food environment at the regional level affect social inequality.
Prolonged on-demand breast feeding is known to delay the resumption of postpartum ovarian cyclicity. At present, however, little is known about the factors that influence the effectiveness of breast feeding as a natural contraceptive. Here, I examine the effects of maternal nutritional status on the duration of postpartum amenorrhea in two socioeconomic groups of Au forager-horticulturalists of lowland Papua New Guinea. Although women in both groups continue to breast-feed their offspring for approximately three and one-half years, well-nourished wage-earning Au women experience their first postpartum menses just over one year earlier (median = 12.5 months) than their more poorly nourished traditional counterparts (median = 26.6 months). Probit analyses are used to demonstrate that, even after controlling for time since delivery, maternal age, parity, and supplementation of infants' diets, the duration of postpartum amenorrhea is significantly (p