As part of the Euronut SENECA study, food consumption has been assessed in 1217 men and 1241 women, born between 1913 and 1918 and living in 18 towns in 12 European countries. The method used was a standardized modified dietary history, including a 3-day estimated record and a food frequency list based on local food patterns. Intakes of energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, fatty acids, cholesterol and alcohol are described in this paper. As expected, a difference between men and women in energy and nutrient intake was observed in all towns. There was a great variation between towns in mean dietary intakes of all dietary components. Mean energy intake of men ranged from 12.7 MJ in Marki (Poland) to 8.2 MJ in Yverdon (Switzerland) and Chateau Renault-Amboise (France). For women the range was from 10.9 MJ in Marki (Poland) to 6.3 MJ in Yverdon (Switzerland) and Vila Franca de Xira (Portugal). A geographical pattern can be detected for the intake of fatty acids. Intakes of saturated fat were lower in southern than in northern European towns. The calculated ratio for intakes of unsaturated and saturated fatty acids (polyunsaturated fatty acids plus monounsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids) for all participants was higher in the southern European centres than in the northern centres and ranged from 2.7 in Markopoulo (Greece) to 1.2 in Elverum (Norway) and Marki (Poland). Alcohol consumption was considerable higher in men than in women. In men a north-south gradient in alcohol intake can be detected, with the highest intake in the two centres in Italy, where, on average 11% of energy intake was derived from alcohol.
Department of Population Health Research, Alberta Health Services—Cancer Care, c/o Holy Cross Site, Box ACB, 2210 2nd Street SW, Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2S 3C3. firstname.lastname@example.org
Dietary patterns derived by cluster analysis are commonly reported with little information describing how decisions are made at each step of the analytical process. Using food frequency questionnaire data obtained in 2001-2007 on Albertan men (n = 6,445) and women (n = 10,299) aged 35-69 years, the authors explored the use of statistical approaches to diminish the subjectivity inherent in cluster analysis. Reproducibility of cluster solutions, defined as agreement between 2 cluster assignments, by 3 clustering methods (Ward's minimum variance, flexible beta, K means) was evaluated. Ratios of between- versus within-cluster variances were examined, and health-related variables across clusters in the final solution were described. K means produced cluster solutions with the highest reproducibility. For men, 4 clusters were chosen on the basis of ratios of between- versus within-cluster variances, but for women, 3 clusters were chosen on the basis of interpretability of cluster labels and descriptive statistics. In comparison with those in other clusters, men and women in the "healthy" clusters by greater proportions reported normal body mass index, smaller waist circumference, and lower energy intakes. The authors' approach appeared helpful when choosing the clustering method for both sexes and the optimal number of clusters for men, but additional analyses are required to understand why it performed differently for women.
In connection with a survey of child nutrition in Finland a study was carried out on the serum cholesterol concentration in childhood and its relationship to dietary and other variables. The material consisted of 1496 children ages 5, 9, and 13 years from 14 local districts in Finland. Total cholesterol was determined from nonfasted venous serum samples by a modification of the p-toluenesulfonic acid reaction. Food consumption was investigated by the 24-hr recall method and nutrient intakes determined from these results using food composition tables. For analysis, children in each age group were classified into low, medium, and high cholesterol groups. The serum cholesterol concentrations of the 5, 9, and 13 year olds were 6.03 +/- 1.03, 6.16 +/- 1.04, and 6.08 +/- 1.01 mmole/liter (233 +/- 40, 238 +/- 40, and 235 +/- 39 mg/100 ml), respectively. Of the children 10% had serum cholesterol concentrations of 7.4 mmole/liter (286 mg/100 ml) or more. Serum cholesterol concentration was not correlated with sex, relative body weight, or systolic or diastolic blood pressure. High cholesterol concentrations appeared to be associated with traditional dietary habits and especially with a high proportion of saturated fats in the diet.
Results of an epidemiological investigation of a non-organized population of males at the age of 29-52 years in the city of Kiev revealed in 22.4% dyslipoproteinemia. Feeding of the population and its relationship to disorders of the lipid metabolism were evaluated. Dietary recommendations and primary prophylaxis of ischemic heart disease are discussed.
BACKGROUND: The need to promote a healthy diet to curb the current obesity epidemic has today been recognized by most countries. A prerequisite for planning and evaluating interventions on dietary intake is the existence of valid information on long-term average dietary intake in a population. Few large, population-based studies of dietary intake have been carried out in Sweden. The largest to date is the VÃ¤sterbotten Intervention Program (VIP), which was initiated in 1985, with data collection still ongoing. This paper reports on the first comprehensive analyses of the dietary data and presents dietary intake patterns among over 60,000 women and men in northern Sweden during 1992-2005. METHODS: Between 1992 and 2005, 71,367 inhabitants in VÃ¤sterbotten county aged 30, 40, 50, and 60 years visited their local health care center as part of the VIP. Participants of VIP filled in an 84- or 64-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and provided sociodemographic information. Complete and realistic information on consumption frequency was provided by 62,531 individuals. Food intake patterns were analyzed using K-means cluster analyses. RESULTS: The mean daily energy intake was 6,83 (+/- 1,77) MJ among women and 8,71 (+/- 2,26) MJ among men. More than half of both women and men were classified as Low Energy Reporters (defined as individuals reporting a food intake level below the lower 95% confidence interval limit of the physical activity level). Larger variation in frequency of daily intake was seen among women than among men for most food groups. Among women, four dietary clusters were identified, labeled "Fruit and vegetables", "High fat", "Coffee and sandwich", and "Tea and ice cream". Among men, three dietary clusters were identified, labeled "Fruit and vegetables", "High fat", and "Tea, soda and cookies". CONCLUSION: More distinct food intake patterns were seen among women than men in this study in northern Sweden. Due to large proportions of Low Energy Reporters, our results on dietary intake may not be suitable for comparisons with recommended intake levels. However, the results on food intake patterns should still be valid and useful as a basis for targeting interventions to groups most in need.
Data on mortality among over 8000 Canadians aged 35 to 79 years who participated in the Nutrition Canada survey are presented. The effects of various risk factors on mortality were assessed with a multivariate Poisson regression analysis. Factors associated with a significantly increased risk of death over a 10-year follow-up period ending in 1981 included cigarette smoking, hypertension and diabetes mellitus. A shallow U-shaped mortality pattern was observed for body mass index and for serum cholesterol level. No statistically significant increases in risk were associated with alcohol consumption. The population attributable risks for smoking, hypertension and diabetes were 39%, 8% and 6% respectively for men and 21%, 12% and 7% respectively for women.