This paper considers the association of nutrition habits with the development of various noninfectious diseases, including chronic diseases. Stress that is followed by arrest and juridical processes, in combination with other factors attended by criminal sanctions as imprisonment also negatively affect the health status of a special contingent of the penitentiary system. Our studies have ascertained the association between the qualitative and quantitative composition of food and the health status of convicts.
The purpose of this study was to quantify nutritional risk in a convenience sample of vulnerable, community-living seniors, and to determine patterns of nutritional risk in these seniors. The sample consisted of 367 seniors who provided health, functional, and nutritional risk information during an interview in which the Seniors in the Community: Risk Evaluation for Eating and Nutrition questionnaire was used. The majority (73.6%) of the sample was female, and the mean age was 79 years. Nutritional risk was identified in 68.7% of the sample, with 44.4% being at high nutritional risk. Common nutritional risk factors were weight change, restricting food, low fruit and vegetable intake, difficulty with chewing, cooking, or shopping, and poor appetite. Principal components analysis identified four independent components within the Seniors in the Community: Risk Evaluation for Eating and Nutrition questionnaire; these components can be described as low food intake, poor appetite, physical and external challenges, and instrumental activity challenges. Data are sparse on nutritional risk in community-living Canadian seniors; despite methodologic limitations in the recruitment process, this study provides some indication of the level of nutrition problems. The patterns of nutritional risk identified in this vulnerable population may help providers identify useful strategies for ameliorating risk. The Seniors in the Community: Risk Evaluation for Eating and Nutrition questionnaire could be used to identify risk and patterns of risk in Canadian seniors, so that treatment could be individualized.
Prolonged on-demand breast feeding is known to delay the resumption of postpartum ovarian cyclicity. At present, however, little is known about the factors that influence the effectiveness of breast feeding as a natural contraceptive. Here, I examine the effects of maternal nutritional status on the duration of postpartum amenorrhea in two socioeconomic groups of Au forager-horticulturalists of lowland Papua New Guinea. Although women in both groups continue to breast-feed their offspring for approximately three and one-half years, well-nourished wage-earning Au women experience their first postpartum menses just over one year earlier (median = 12.5 months) than their more poorly nourished traditional counterparts (median = 26.6 months). Probit analyses are used to demonstrate that, even after controlling for time since delivery, maternal age, parity, and supplementation of infants' diets, the duration of postpartum amenorrhea is significantly (p
This study evaluated the relationship between meeting the Nutrition Recommendations and mortality from all causes in a cohort of 1,623 men from the Quebec City area followed from 1985 to 1991. The usual dietary intake was assessed by a self-administered semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Most participants did not meet the Nutrition Recommendations. During the follow-up 69 men died. The mortality was significantly lower among those who did not meet the recommendations for total fat (RR = 0.45, CI: 0.25-0.81) or for carbohydrates (RR = 0.49, CI: 0.26-0.92). This unexpected result could be attributable to an excessive alcohol intake or to dietary changes in the direction of the Nutrition Recommendations, made prior to the dietary assessment often because of illness. It would be interesting to continue the follow-up of this cohort to evaluate the long-term effect of a diet meeting the Nutrition Recommendations on mortality from all causes.
Dietary intake was studied in 295 of Moscow's residents by 24-hour recall method. High level of animal fat, sugar and cholesterol (Ch) were found in diet of man and women. Energy intake of men is higher than that of women at the expense of animal fat and protein. Women consume less amount of cholesterol-containing food. The levels of serum Ch, HDLP-Ch, triglycerides are in close relation with blood pressure values. The levels of serum Ch, HDLP-Ch, systolic and diastolic blood pressure are connected with variables of age and body mass index.
A nutrition survey was conducted as part of a larger cardiovascular risk study undertaken by the Manitoba Heart Health Project. A representative group of Manitobans participated in the study, 68% of whom reported their food intake using a food frequency questionnaire. After verifying and merging data from the nutrition and risk factor questionnaires used in the survey, 2,115 were used in data analysis. Results are reported by gender for three age groups. The proportion of food energy derived from total fat varied between 35.3% for senior females and 40.2% for young males. Food of seniors contained a lower proportion of energy from fat than that of either of the two younger age groups. In all three age groups, men consumed diets with a higher proportion of fat than did women. People in regional centres and rural areas obtained higher proportions of energy from fat than did people in Winnipeg. Fat intake from butter, margarine or spreads eaten with bread and potatoes was high compared to the intake from other foods.
Despite its health implications, the fibre intake of Irish children is unknown. The North/South Ireland Food Consumption Survey indicated that 77% of Irish adults do not consume adequate fibre and surveys of children and adolescents in Canada and Sweden have confirmed suboptimal fibre intake in these groups. This study undertook to assess fibre intake and the incidence of constipation in Irish children aged 5-8 years. Children admitted to hospital with an acute self-limiting medical illness were included in the study. Three day food diaries were recorded on discharge from hospital. The presence of constipation was ascertained Seventy six per cent of 135 children s diets did not contain adequate fibre. The incidence of constipation was 13.6% in those with inadequate fibre intake as opposed to 6% in those with adequate fibre intake. Poor dietary fibre needs to be addressed in the context of health promotion and disease prevention involving parents, health care professionals and government public policy.
The objective of this study was to initiate a community surveillance of fat consumption, using a food frequency questionnaire. We surveyed 584 French speaking adults, using a telephone-administered questionnaire. A response rate of 84% was obtained, and the sample was representative of Lanaudière's population in terms of age and sex. The index was computed by determining the daily consumption of fat in grams from 13 food items. The index's median value was 39.5 grams (g) of fat per day, the upper quartile 58.5% g/day the lower quartile 26.5 g/day of fat. Using a weighted least squares regression analysis we tested whether people residing in the northern zone had a higher index value. Sex, level of education, age and residency in the northern (predominantly rural) zone of the territory were independently associated with the index. These results confirm a prior perception that residents of the more rural zone would have a higher fat consumption index value. The results suggest that this index is sufficiently sensitive for community surveillance purposes.