The method of daily ration reproduction was used to study the actual nutrition of 25% of male subsampling comprising 674 subjects, during the epidemiological investigation of unorganized male population in a region of Ufa. The results of the study have shown that the caloric value of their nutrition does not exceed the established standards and is diminished with age. Protein consumption meets the physiological requirements, animal proteins prevail in their structure. Carbohydrate consumption is low, mainly at the expense of starch, while the share of sugar is high. Fat consumption exceeds the values recommended, mainly at the expense of saturated fatty acids. Cholesterol consumption is excessive. The established nutrition imbalance of the main food substances has evidenced the atherogenic character of the population nutrition, prevalence of animal food products in its structure, that should be taken into consideration when measures for the prevention of coronary heart disease are elaborated.
Simultaneous epidemiologic investigations of representative samplings of the male population, aged from 30 to 59 years, were carried out in Chukot Peninsula and the Buryat ASSR in 1981-1982 and 1985-1986 years. The programme of the study included standard questioning to reveal angina of effort according to the WHO Cardiologic Questionnaire, ECG recording at rest, arterial pressure measuring (twice), anthropometry, biochemical blood assay (the content of total cholesterol, triglycerides and high density lipoprotein cholesterol). Actual nutrition was studied by the method of "daily reproduction" in 104 residents of Markovskaya tundra (85.3%), in 165 residents of Chukot Peninsula (73.4%) and in 476 residents of the Buryat ASSR (95.2% of the planned number). Differences have been revealed in the characteristics of nutrition and blood lipid content between the native residents of Chukot Peninsula and the Buryat ASSR. Certain relationship has been determined between dyslipoproteinemia incidence and differences in the nutrition of the compared population groups.
The contribution of the various food groups to the nutrient intakes of a group of independently-living elderly individuals in Toronto is described. The pattern of meal and food intakes generally provided enough of the nutrients, excepting calcium, to meet the Recommended Nutrient Intakes for Canadians. Mean energy intake was low. It is suggested that if relatively small amounts of the foods ingested at the different meals are raised, it will likely provide enough energy and all the nutrients to satisfy the recommended levels of intake.
In a group of 528 men, 30-54 years old, answers to various questions about dietary habits given in a questionnaire were compared to corresponding information given in a dietary history interview two years later. High concordance was found between the two methods for questions concerning types of foods most commonly used. For most food items, the mean intake according to the dietary recall corresponds well with intake reported in the questionnaire. For food items used every day in easily recorded units (slices of bread, cups of coffee, glasses of milk), the frequency questionnaire can be used to rank individuals according to consumption. For other food items, the concordance is less satisfactory.
Provincial nutrition surveys of adults were conducted between 1990 and 1999 in Canada. Eight reports have been issued, and one is forthcoming. The purpose of this study was to estimate the national dietary intake of adult Canadians, using the publicly available data. Group mean-nutrient-intake data from 16 915 adults, aged 18 to 84 years, from published provincial reports were collated by age and sex for each of 9 provinces (Manitoba data were unavailable). Using Canadian census data appropriate to the year of collection, intake data were weighted to provide 1 national intake value for each nutrient, by 8 age and sex categories. In general, the energy and nutrient intake of adults decreased with age. For every age group, with the exception of vitamin C, intake of nutrients by men was greater than that by women. On the basis of a comparison of recently recommended intakes (Dietary Reference Intakes), the nutrients that are of concern because of inadequate intake include dietary fibre, calcium, magnesium, and folate. The data demonstrate the impact of folate fortification on folate intake; the mean intake became twice that of prefortification levels. This study used group mean-intake data; therefore, we cannot make definitive conclusions about the prevalence of inadequacy for the nutrients. Because of limitations with some provincial response rates, our data should not be construed as representative of the Canadian population. However, because these surveys were completed between the 19701972 Nutrition Canada Survey and the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey, these population-weighted data might be a useful point of comparison for monitoring trends in nutrient intake from food.
Day-to-day variability in dietary intake makes it difficult to measure accurately the "usual" intake of foods and nutrients. The objectives of the present study were to estimate within- and between-subject variability for foods and nutrients by adjusted and unadjusted models and to assess the number of days required to assess nutrient and food group intakes accurately by two different methods. Adult men and women aged 18-65 y (n = 1543) in the Food Habits of Canadians Study provided a 24-h recall. A repeat interview was conducted in a subsample to estimate components of variability. Within- and between-subject variability were determined by mixed model procedure (crude and adjusted for age, gender, education, smoking, family size and season). The number of days required to obtain various degrees of accuracy was ascertained by two methods, one that uses the variance ratio for groups and one that considers within-subject variability alone for individuals. Variance ratios were higher using the adjusted compared with the unadjusted method (e.g., for men, energy 1.07 vs. 0.49). More days were required to reflect usual intake with accuracy using the adjusted model (energy 5 vs. 2 d), indicating the need to control for confounders to obtain reliable estimates of intakes.