The nutritional adequacy of commercial baby foods is assessed from data derived from a longitudinal nutrition survey of 400 infants in Canada. On the average, the nutrient intakes from infant food meet or exceed the recommended daily allowances for most nutrients. Most infants would not be able to meet the minimum daily requirements for iron, B vitamins, or calcium if infant cereals were not fortified.
The purpose of this study was to examine nutritional and supplemental habits among international alpine- and cross-country skiers and power sport athletes in Norway. Data from all the athletes of the National alpine skiing team (ALP; n = 33, 19 men and 14 women) and the National cross-country skiing team (CRO; n = 34, 17 men and 17 women) plus a mixed group of power sport athletes (POW: n = 33, all men) from the National teams of boxers, weightlifters and track and field athletes, were collected through a semi-structured interview during their annual medical examination. Twenty percent of all the athletes reported unsatisfactory nutritional habits (CRO 6%, ALP 27% and POW 27%; CRO vs. ALP/POW P
OBJECTIVE: To assess manifest bias in ageing effects, i.e. longitudinal changes due to unintended time effects or to selection. DESIGN: Mixed-longitudinal study in birth cohorts 1913-1918, with baseline measurements taken in 1988/1989 and repeated in 1993, including a short questionnaire in non-responders. SETTING: Full baseline and follow-up data were collected in nine towns in eight European countries including Belgium, Denmark, France, Italy, The Netherlands, Portugal, Spain and Switzerland. Incomplete data were available from towns in Portugal, Poland, Northern Ireland and Connecticut, USA. SUBJECTS: Using standardized methodologies data were collected from a random age-stratified sample of elderly men and women, including a total of 1221 re-invited subjects from nine towns and 210 newly-invited subjects from three towns in 1993. RESULTS: An overall retrieval of 50-74% of the former participants could be reached in towns that had previously participated (apart from one exception of 41%), where estimates of mortality varied from 10% to 18%. There was a tendency for healthy and active persons to have a higher participation rate than others, as was the case for high educated newly-invited subjects compared to lower educational classes. For most of the variables used in the analysis of period effects, no evidence of any undesirable period effect was found. In those instances that period effects showed up to be statistically significant, coinciding implausible cohort effects gave the impression that these were due to instability of the estimation procedure. CONCLUSIONS: Non-participants may be less healthy and active than the participants. Only very limited unconvincing evidence to suggest unintended time effects was observed. This confirms the high standards of the methodology and of measurements.
Dietary investigations in four central European survey populations carried out in the German Democratic Republic, Poland and Denmark between 1982 and 1984 using different methodologies were analysed in order to assess the possibilities of characterizing the dietary habits of individual survey participants in a comparable fashion. This was done with the view of assessing the feasibility of a pooled cancer cohort study. For this purpose a method has been devised to combine dietary information derived by food frequency questionnaires and quantitative recording methods into a quantitative characterization of individuals' habits. A comparable characterization between different cultural settings could be demonstrated for a selected list of food items. The selection was determined by the food items considered in common in the different food frequency questionnaires and yielding sufficient and comparable variation as well as absolute amounts of intake. This was more clearly found for food items such as 'fruit' which experience a concise role in dietary habits. However, the observed discrepancies of the different dietary methods within the countries, and, most importantly, between the countries, result in distributions of average daily consumption values which are not deemed to be comparable.
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the capacity of the 'Determine Your Nutritional Health' Checklist (NSI Checklist) and the 'Mini Nutritional Assessment' (MNA) methods to predict nutrition-related health problems. Data were from the Danish part of the 'Survey in Europe of Nutrition in the Elderly, a Concerted Action' (SENECA) baseline survey from 1988, and the follow-up study from 1993. Based on the baseline survey thirty-nine (19.3%) of the subjects were classified at high nutritional risk, 103 (51%) were considered at moderate nutritional risk and sixty (29.7%) were within the 'good' range according to the criteria in the NSI Checklist. With the MNA, 171 subjects were classified according to their nutritional risk into a well-nourished group, comprising 78.4%, and a group who were at risk of undernutrition, comprising 21.6% at baseline. A total of 115 subjects participated in the follow-up study. The mortality rate and the prevalence of various morbidity indicators were compared between the different risk groups. The analysis showed that subjects with a high MNA score (> or = 24) had significantly lower mortality (rate ratio estimate: 0.35; 95% Cl 0.18, 0.66) compared with subjects with a low MNA score (
This study investigates the association of dietary quality with dental caries increment of 11-year-old children. A 3-day dietary record including one weekend day was completed by the subjects and their parents. The nutritional quality was evaluated using a quality index based on the eating frequency of foods recommended in food guides and divided into 8 levels. The frequency of consumption of sugary foods, liquid and solid, at and between meals was also calculated. Two oral examinations 20 months apart were made in 1983-85; each time, the quality of oral hygiene was determined by using the simplified oral hygiene was determined by using the simplified oral hygiene index of Greene and Vermillon. the dental caries increment between the two examinations was evaluated using the DMFS index. When the subjects were distributed into 3 groups according to their nutritional quality index, the mean dental caries increment had a tendency to decrease as the nutritional quality increased for the total sample as well as for boys and girls considered separately; however, the analysis of variance did not reveal any differences of statistical significance. No association was established for children in this study between frequency of consumption of sugary foods and caries increment. No association was observed between nutritional quality and oral hygiene nor between the mother's education and the children's frequency of consumption of sugary foods. Thus, in our study, children with the highest dental caries increment are not necessarily the ones having a diet of poor nutritional quality nor the ones consuming sugary foods more frequently.
Although surveys have reported that the fat content of the diet has decreased over past decades, the prevalence of obesity has continued to rise in Europe and North America. This phenomenon, 'the American paradox', has been attributed partly to an inability of the reduction in dietary fat to reduce excess body fat, and partly to the over-consumption of low-fat products, which, despite their reduced fat content, have in some cases been accused of maintaining a high energy density due to low fibre and water contents, and a high content of refined carbohydrates. In Denmark, the prevalence of obesity has increased in a period in which national dietary surveys have reported a reduction of more than 10% in dietary fat content. Analysing the Danish situation, it seems unlikely that the occurrence of the American paradox in Denmark is caused by the increased consumption of energy-dense, low-fat foods. Other explanations, e.g. the under-reporting of dietary fat in surveys and the clustering of obesity-promoting lifestyles in subgroups of the population, should be sought.