The purpose of this study was to examine nutritional and supplemental habits among international alpine- and cross-country skiers and power sport athletes in Norway. Data from all the athletes of the National alpine skiing team (ALP; n = 33, 19 men and 14 women) and the National cross-country skiing team (CRO; n = 34, 17 men and 17 women) plus a mixed group of power sport athletes (POW: n = 33, all men) from the National teams of boxers, weightlifters and track and field athletes, were collected through a semi-structured interview during their annual medical examination. Twenty percent of all the athletes reported unsatisfactory nutritional habits (CRO 6%, ALP 27% and POW 27%; CRO vs. ALP/POW P
Dietary investigations in four central European survey populations carried out in the German Democratic Republic, Poland and Denmark between 1982 and 1984 using different methodologies were analysed in order to assess the possibilities of characterizing the dietary habits of individual survey participants in a comparable fashion. This was done with the view of assessing the feasibility of a pooled cancer cohort study. For this purpose a method has been devised to combine dietary information derived by food frequency questionnaires and quantitative recording methods into a quantitative characterization of individuals' habits. A comparable characterization between different cultural settings could be demonstrated for a selected list of food items. The selection was determined by the food items considered in common in the different food frequency questionnaires and yielding sufficient and comparable variation as well as absolute amounts of intake. This was more clearly found for food items such as 'fruit' which experience a concise role in dietary habits. However, the observed discrepancies of the different dietary methods within the countries, and, most importantly, between the countries, result in distributions of average daily consumption values which are not deemed to be comparable.
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the capacity of the 'Determine Your Nutritional Health' Checklist (NSI Checklist) and the 'Mini Nutritional Assessment' (MNA) methods to predict nutrition-related health problems. Data were from the Danish part of the 'Survey in Europe of Nutrition in the Elderly, a Concerted Action' (SENECA) baseline survey from 1988, and the follow-up study from 1993. Based on the baseline survey thirty-nine (19.3%) of the subjects were classified at high nutritional risk, 103 (51%) were considered at moderate nutritional risk and sixty (29.7%) were within the 'good' range according to the criteria in the NSI Checklist. With the MNA, 171 subjects were classified according to their nutritional risk into a well-nourished group, comprising 78.4%, and a group who were at risk of undernutrition, comprising 21.6% at baseline. A total of 115 subjects participated in the follow-up study. The mortality rate and the prevalence of various morbidity indicators were compared between the different risk groups. The analysis showed that subjects with a high MNA score (> or = 24) had significantly lower mortality (rate ratio estimate: 0.35; 95% Cl 0.18, 0.66) compared with subjects with a low MNA score (
Although surveys have reported that the fat content of the diet has decreased over past decades, the prevalence of obesity has continued to rise in Europe and North America. This phenomenon, 'the American paradox', has been attributed partly to an inability of the reduction in dietary fat to reduce excess body fat, and partly to the over-consumption of low-fat products, which, despite their reduced fat content, have in some cases been accused of maintaining a high energy density due to low fibre and water contents, and a high content of refined carbohydrates. In Denmark, the prevalence of obesity has increased in a period in which national dietary surveys have reported a reduction of more than 10% in dietary fat content. Analysing the Danish situation, it seems unlikely that the occurrence of the American paradox in Denmark is caused by the increased consumption of energy-dense, low-fat foods. Other explanations, e.g. the under-reporting of dietary fat in surveys and the clustering of obesity-promoting lifestyles in subgroups of the population, should be sought.
To study cross-cultural variations and changes in intake of food groups in elderly Europeans, longitudinal data on food-group intake from Danish (n = 55), Dutch (n = 65), Swiss (n = 79), and Spanish (n = 46) female participants in the Survey in Europe on Nutrition and the Elderly a Concerted Action (SENECA) were compared. Participants were born between 1913 and 1918. Information on food intake was obtained with use of the same diet-history method at all sites and in both 1988-1989 and 1993. Actual food intake was coded according to the Eurocode system, the applicability of which for European multicenter studies was evaluated in this study. All participants, regardless of site, reported consumption of milk, grain products, and vegetables, and almost all ate meat, fats, and fruit. Fewer women ate eggs, fish, and sugar. The variations between the sites were in the food groups consumed and the types of foods within the groups. Spanish women appeared to have the most healthy food-intake pattern. They also had more changes in their dietary pattern than did women in the other countries. The Eurocode was adequate for describing the actual food intake of elderly women in four European towns. The coding for meat, however, was ambiguous and should be revised.
In November 1988 a random sample of 435 men and women aged 70-75 years from the general population in Roskilde, a provincial town in Denmark, were invited to participate in a study of nutrition and health. Forty-six per cent of the total sample agreed to participate. The total sample could be characterized by socio-economic variables and data on previous hospitalizations obtained from public registers. A subgroup of the non-participants could be further characterized by some of the topics under study using information obtained by telephone interviews. It was found that the non-participants differed from participants by selected health variables. More non-participants than participants had been hospitalized one year before contact. Telephone interviews with non-participants revealed generally poorer self-judged health and less-frequent eating of cooked meals compared with participants. The degree of bias introduced by this selectivity is estimated by weighting and by a minimum/maximum calculation. Review of participation in previous studies of nutrition and health in the elderly shows that problems with non-participation have been treated in various ways. It is concluded that consideration of factors discriminating between participants and non-participants is important for proper estimation of population parameters.
In 1989, 674 schoolchildren aged 12-14 years in nine elementary schools in a municipality in Copenhagen, Denmark, answered a questionnaire about their dietary habits and knowledge. The majority of the pupils had fruit (87%), vegetables (72%), rye bread (81%), and drank fat-reduced milk (73%) every day. A diet score (reliability = 0.58) was calculated on the basis of the intake of 8 food items relevant to current dietary recommendations. There were no age and sex differences as to dietary habits, but immigrant children had a lower diet score than native children. Dietary knowledge was measured by the ability to state correctly whether 11 different food items had a high content or not of fat, sugar or dietary fibres. Dietary knowledge was highest for questions about fat and sugar. A knowledge score measured the number of correct answers to all 33 questions (reliability = 0.90). Knowledge was highest among older children, native children, and children with the most healthy dietary habits. In the multivariate regression analysis, knowledge, health attitudes and ethnicity were the only significant predictors of dietary behaviour. It is concluded that both social and personal factors are important for dietary behaviour, and health promotion in children should include other methods than educational programmes.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the nationwide study on dietary behaviour of adolescents was to describe and evaluate dietary habits, and relate that to other lifestyle factors. DESIGN AND SUBJECT: 1564 students in secondary schools completed a self-administered quantitative food frequency questionnaire in a school setting. RESULTS: The questionnaire showed an average energy intake of 15.8 and 9.9 MJ among boys and girls, respectively. Nearly 31% of the energy was supplied by fat and 11.4% by sugar. The average daily intake of micronutrients exceeded the Norwegian recommendations, except for vitamin D and iron in girls. 13.4% of the students had breakfast twice a week or less. These students had a higher percentage of energy from fat and sugar, and a lower intake of micronutrients, than students eating breakfast more often. Students who were daily smokers or fairly inactive had higher energy percentage from fat and sugar and lower intake of fibre, than non-smokers or physically active students. CONCLUSION: Half of the students consumed a diet with too much fat and two-thirds consumed too much sugar as compared to the recommendations. The girls had a diet with a higher nutrient density and a lower fat energy percentage than the boys. Finally, it seemed as if a healthy lifestyle was associated with a healthy diet.
Greek immigrant children (GI) belonging to the second generation of immigrants in Sweden have been compared with Swedish children (S) and Greek children in Greece (G) regarding energy and nutrient intake. Twenty-four-hour recalls were obtained in the homes of the families. The mean energy intake was the same in all three groups and met the Swedish Nutrition Recommendations. The energy distribution for protein, carbohydrates and fat was also similar. The fat intake was far above the recommended level in all groups. The GI and the G group had a significantly higher mean daily intake of monounsaturated fatty acids than the S group (p less than 0.05 and p less than 0.001, respectively). Children aged four to eight years in the GI group had a significantly higher nutrient density of retinol, vitamin D, riboflavin, vitamin B6, calcium, iron, magnesium and sucrose compared to the G group, but compared to the S group they had a lower nutrient density of retinol, vitamin D, ascorbic acid, niacin, vitamin B12 and selen. The GI children consumed more milk than the G children but as much as the S children and they had started to use enriched low-fat milk in Sweden. In conclusion, the food quality in the GI group was better than in the G group and much the same as in the S group, and, with few exceptions, it met the Swedish Nutrition Recommendations.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of retrospective information on diet in relation to the information originally reported. Hospital controls (n = 131) who participated in a case-control study on diet and pancreatic cancer in Stockholm, Sweden, answered a second postal questionnaire four years later about their current and previous food consumption. The food consumption was dichotomized for the purpose of the analysis. In relation to the original information, the use of retrospective information overestimated previous food consumption among subjects with increased intake, while retrospective information underestimated previous food consumption among subjects with decreased intake. These tendencies were slightly more pronounced in the age group 60-79 years than in the age group 40-59 years. For subjects with unchanged food consumption, there was a high agreement between original and retrospective information. Considerable differential misclassification could be introduced in an epidemiological study if cases and non-cases differ with regard to changes in food consumption.