Centro de Investigación en Nutrición y Salud, Departamento de Vigilancia de la Nutrición, Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública, Avenida Universidad 655, colonia Santa María Ahuacatitlán 62508 Cuernavaca, Morelos, México. firstname.lastname@example.org
The purpose of this study is to quantify the prevalence and distribution of anemia among women of childbearing age (12 to 49 years) participating in the 1999 National Nutrition Survey (NNS-1999).
The survey had a probabilistic design and was representative at the national level, of urban and rural areas and four regions: North, South, Center, and Mexico City. Hemoglobin concentration was determined in capillary blood samples using a portable photometer (HemoCue), in 17,194 women, 697 of whom were pregnant.
The overall prevalence of anemia was 27.8% in pregnant women and 20.8% in non-pregnant women. Higher prevalences were observed in rural as compared to urban areas, both in pregnant (28.0% vs 27.7%) and non-pregnant (22.6% vs 20.0%) women, but the differences were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Women in the South had the greatest prevalence (23.2%), followed by those in the North (20.9%), Center (20.6%), and Mexico City (16.4%). Non-pregnant indigenous women had a prevalence of 24.8%, while in-non-indigenous women the prevalence was 20.4%.
Anemia in women of childbearing age is a growing public health problem that justifies the implementation of interventions for its prevention and control. The English version of this paper is available too at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html.
Nutrient and energy intake was studied in 892 pregnant women during III trimester of pregnancy. Daily total protein intake was 65-66 g and animal protein made up 60% of total protein intake. Total fat consumption was 80-81 g, carbohydrates intake was 240-250 g. Total energy intake in Ekaterinburg's and Moscow's pregnant made up 2031 and 1978 kcal respectively. Body mass gain from I to III trimesters have formed about 9 kg or 0.41 kg per week. Body mass index (BMI) averaged 25,1 and 25,7 in Ekaterinburg's and Moscow's pregnant on day of survey. About 2,5% of women had BMI lower than 19,8. The results were compared with data of developed countries and conclusion was made about sufficient energy and macronutrient intakes, but fat intake was moderately high and formed 33-35% of total energy. The usefulness of Russian RDA are discussed for evaluation of results of dietary surveys.
Prolonged on-demand breast feeding is known to delay the resumption of postpartum ovarian cyclicity. At present, however, little is known about the factors that influence the effectiveness of breast feeding as a natural contraceptive. Here, I examine the effects of maternal nutritional status on the duration of postpartum amenorrhea in two socioeconomic groups of Au forager-horticulturalists of lowland Papua New Guinea. Although women in both groups continue to breast-feed their offspring for approximately three and one-half years, well-nourished wage-earning Au women experience their first postpartum menses just over one year earlier (median = 12.5 months) than their more poorly nourished traditional counterparts (median = 26.6 months). Probit analyses are used to demonstrate that, even after controlling for time since delivery, maternal age, parity, and supplementation of infants' diets, the duration of postpartum amenorrhea is significantly (p
Out of a total of 158 pregnant women, 55 accepted participation in a dietary investigation for seven days with the object of assessing the consumption of milk by pregnant women and the significance of this for the intake of energy-providing dietary constituents and certain minerals. The diet in pregnant women contained more fat (43.2%) and the relationship between polyunsaturated and saturated fatty acids (P/S-relationship) (0.25) was less than that recommended. The daily dietary content of fibre of 20.7 g/day was lower than the recommended intake. Calcium, phosphate and magnesium intakes constituted 180%, 131% and 64% respectively, of the recommended daily intake. The average intake of milk (buttermilk, skim milk, low fat milk and whole milk) was 482 g/day. The calcium content of the milk constituted, on an average, one third of the total calcium intake. The content of fat and saturated fatty acids in the milk constituted 7% and 10%, respectively, of the total intake. Four of the pregnant women had a daily calcium consumption of less than the recommended intake (1,000 mg/day). The same women had the lowest consumption of milk and energy in the group investigated. The results suggest that the dietary consumption is adequate to cover the calcium requirements. Extra calcium supplements should only be recommended for pregnant women with limited consumption of milk and other milk products. Pregnant women should be advised to take increased quantities of magnesium and to reduce the fat intake.
In an exploratory study of the genetic epidemiology of neural tube defects in Newfoundland, we studied mothers who had given birth to a child with a neural tube defect (NTD) with respect to their nutrition, as well as various other factors. The frequency of NTD in the area studied was 3.5/1,000 births and has not decreased recently, as it has in some other parts of the world. Twenty-five mothers of children with NTD and a comparison group (CG), matched for age and neighbourhood, completed 3 day dietary records. The NTD group consisted of all mothers who had given birth to an NTD child within the previous 3.5 years in the chosen area. The CG mothers were ascertained through the local public health nurse who chose the nearest unaffected child born in the same time period as the NTD probands. NTD mothers were younger, heavier, and of lower socioeconomic status than were CG mothers. CG group women consumed more vitamin supplements during the periconceptional period (P